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Phosphorylation of ion channels plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac function, but signaling mechanisms controlling dephosphorylation are not well understood. We have tested the hypothesis that p(21)-activated kinase-1 (Pak1), a serine-threonine protein kinase regulated by Ras-related small G proteins, regulates sinoatrial node (SAN) ion(More)
Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX) current has been suggested to play a role in cardiac pacemaking, particularly in association with Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that occurs just before the action potential upstroke. The present experiments explore in more detail the contribution of NCX to pacemaking. Na+-Ca2+ exchange current was inhibited by(More)
Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (AC) are known to play important roles in neurons but have not previously been reported in the heart. Here we present the first evidence for selective expression of Ca(2+)-stimulated AC in the sino-atrial node (SAN) but not in ventricular muscle of the guinea-pig heart. The AC1 isoform of Ca(2+)-stimulated AC was shown to(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate possible regulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(f)) by cytosolic calcium in guinea-pig sino-atrial (SA) node cells. Isolated SA node cells were superfused with physiological saline solution (36 degrees C) and the perforated patch voltage-clamp technique used to record I(f) activated by(More)
The Form of Information in Science: Analysis of an Immunology Sublanguage interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of spatial prepositions. The result is an intriguing, sometimes incomplete, often speculative account of how language and space are related. Often the guiding philosophical maxims are contradicted by assumptions made later in the book. For(More)
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