Paul A. Beales

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A new Phytophthora pathogen of trees and shrubs, previously informally designated Phytophthora taxon C, is formally named here as P. kernoviae. P. kernoviae was discovered in late 2003 during surveys of woodlands in Cornwall, south-west England, for the presence of another invasive pathogen, P. ramorum. P. kernoviae is self-fertile (homothallic), having(More)
Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight, is known to exist as three distinct clonal lineages which can only be distinguished by performing molecular marker-based analyses. However, in the recent literature there exists no consensus on naming of these lineages. Here we propose a system for naming clonal lineages of P.(More)
We demonstrate a method of heterogeneous vesicle binding using membrane-anchored, single-stranded DNA that can be used over several orders of magnitude in vesicle size, as demonstrated for large 100 nm vesicles and giant vesicles several microns in diameter. The aggregation behavior is studied for a range of DNA surface concentrations and solution ionic(More)
The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is a key signaling mechanism in apoptosis. Although extramitochondrial proteins are thought to initiate this release, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Cytochrome c (cyt c) binds to and penetrates lipid structures containing the inner mitochondrial membrane lipid cardiolipin (CL), leading to protein(More)
Lipids and block copolymers can be individually assembled into unsupported, spherical membranes (liposomes or polymersomes), each having their own particular benefits and limitations. Here we demonstrate the preparation of microscale, hybrid "lipopolymersomes" composed of the common lipid POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine) and the(More)
Understanding the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and biological matter is a high-priority research area because of the importance of elucidating the physical mechanisms underlying the interactions leading to NP potential toxicity as well as NP viability as therapeutic vectors in nanomedicine. Here, we use two model membrane systems, giant(More)
We use membrane-anchored DNA as model adhesion receptors between lipid vesicles. By studying the thermal stability of DNA duplex formation, which tethers the vesicles into superstructures, we show that the melting temperature of a 10-base DNA sequence is dependent on the lipid composition of the tethered vesicles. We propose a simple model that describes(More)
Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells' surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in(More)
Compartmentalisation of cellular processes is fundamental to regulation of metabolism in Eukaryotic organisms and is primarily provided by membrane-bound organelles. These organelles are dynamic structures whose membrane barriers are continually shaped, remodelled and scaffolded by a rich variety of highly sophisticated protein complexes. Towards the goal(More)
We present a novel platform for investigating the composition-specific interactions of proteins (or other biologically relevant molecules) with model membranes composed of compositionally distinct domains. We focus on the interaction between a mitochondrial-specific lipid, cardiolipin (CL), and a peripheral membrane protein, cytochrome c (cyt c). We(More)