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The mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces chronic infection in the vast majority of infected individuals are unknown. Sequences within the HCV E1 and E2 envelope genes were analyzed during the acute phase of hepatitis C in 12 patients with different clinical outcomes. Acute resolving hepatitis was associated with relative evolutionary stasis(More)
BACKGROUND Available treatments for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B are associated with poor sustained responses. As a result, nucleoside and nucleotide analogues are typically continued indefinitely, a strategy associated with the risk of resistance and unknown long-term safety implications. METHODS We compared the efficacy and(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic clinical syndrome due to a sudden loss of hepatic cells leading to multiorgan failure. The mechanisms whereby HBV induces ALF are unknown. Here, we show that liver tissue collected at the time of liver transplantation in two patients with HBV-associated ALF is characterized by an(More)
The identification of the neutralization domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essential for the development of an effective vaccine. Here, we show that the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the envelope 2 (E2) protein is a critical neutralization domain of HCV. Neutralization of HCV in vitro was attempted with a rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against a(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most important etiologic agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis and is a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of an effective vaccine would be the most practical method for prevention of the infection, but whether infection with HCV elicits protective immunity in the host is unclear.(More)
INTRODUCTION The liver has inherent regenerative capacity via mitotic division of mature hepatocytes or, when the hepatic loss is massive or hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, through activation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC). The dramatic clinical course of acute liver failure (ALF) has posed major limitations to investigating the molecular(More)
Some individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) experience multiple episodes of acute hepatitis. It is unclear whether these episodes are due to reinfection with HCV or to reactivation of the original virus infection. Markers of viral replication and host immunity were studied in five chimpanzees sequentially inoculated over a period of 3 years with(More)
BACKGROUND Although antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are known to be associated with non-A, non-B hepatitis, little is known about the pattern of HCV replication, its relation to antibody levels, and the clinical course of non-A, non-B hepatitis. METHODS We measured HCV RNA in serial serum samples from five patients with post-transfusion non-A,(More)
We investigated the course of distinct episodes of acute non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis in three polytransfused thalassaemic children. In each case, the first episode was associated with the appearance of serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and anti-HCV seroconversion. The second episode was accompanied by the reappearance of HCV viraemia, which in two(More)