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Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have been considered as potential targets for neuroprotective drugs, but the lack of specific drugs has limited the development of neuroprotective strategies in experimental models of acute or chronic central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The advent of potent and centrally available subtype-selective ligands has(More)
In addition to their well known roles within cells, purine nucleotides such as adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine 5' triphosphate (GTP), nucleosides such as adenosine and guanosine and bases, such as adenine and guanine and their metabolic products xanthine and hypoxanthine are released into the extracellular space where they act as intercellular(More)
Astrocytes are involved in multiple brain functions in physiological conditions, participating in neuronal development, synaptic activity and homeostatic control of the extracellular environment. They also actively participate in the processes triggered by brain injuries, aimed at limiting and repairing brain damages. Purines may play a significant role in(More)
Treatment of rat astrocyte cultures with 2'- and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP), a P2X7 agonist, but not with adenosine 5-[alpha, beta methylene] triphosphate (alpha, beta meATP), a P2X agonist, increased influx of extracellular Ca2+ and [Ca2+]i. Lucifer yellow, a small molecule which permeates P2X7 receptor-induced pores, entered(More)
Astrocyte death may occur in neurodegenerative disorders and complicates the outcome of brain ischemia, a condition associated with high extracellular levels of adenosine and glutamate. We show that pharmacological activation of A(1) adenosine and mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors with N(6)-chlorocyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) and(More)
After ischemic stroke, early thrombolytic therapy to reestablish tissue perfusion improves outcome but triggers a cascade of deleterious cellular and molecular events. Using a collaborative approach, our groups examined the effects of guanosine (Guo) in response to ischemic reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo. In a transient middle cerebral artery(More)
Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to determine region-specific metabolic changes in young and aged animals subjected to a long-term hypoxic-ischemic injury. Focal ischemia, which was studied as an experimental stroke model, was induced in 3- and 24-month-old rats by unilateral common carotid artery occlusion associated with(More)
Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), potent mediators in inflammatory diseases, are produced by nervous tissue, but their cellular source and role in the brain are not very well known. In this report we have demonstrated that rat cultured astrocytes express the enzymes (5'-lipoxygenase and LTC(4) synthase) required for cys-LT production, and release cys-LTs in(More)
4-[[3-(1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-9-purin-9-yl)-1-oxopropyl]amino]benzoic acid (AIT-082) is an hypoxanthine derivative that stimulates in vitro neurite outgrowth and the production of adenosine and neurotrophins from astrocytes. These effects may predict an in vivo neuroprotective activity of the drug. Thus, we evaluated whether AIT-082 protected against a long-term(More)
Pharmacological activation of A(1) adenosine receptor with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) or mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors with (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2', 3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) or aminopyrrolidine-2R, 4R-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC) enhanced the release of nerve growth factor (NGF) or S-100beta protein from rat cultured(More)