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Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) caused by an abnormal rate of apoptosis. Endogenous stem cells in the adult mammalian brain indicate an innate potential for regeneration and possible resource for neuroregeneration in PD. We previously showed that(More)
Astrocytes are involved in multiple brain functions in physiological conditions, participating in neuronal development, synaptic activity and homeostatic control of the extracellular environment. They also actively participate in the processes triggered by brain injuries, aimed at limiting and repairing brain damages. Purines may play a significant role in(More)
Spinal cord injury results in progressive waves of secondary injuries, cascades of noxious pathological mechanisms that substantially exacerbate the primary injury and the resultant permanent functional deficits. Secondary injuries are associated with inflammation, excessive cytokine release, and cell apoptosis. The purine nucleoside guanosine has(More)
Treatment of rat astrocyte cultures with 2'- and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP), a P2X7 agonist, but not with adenosine 5-[alpha, beta methylene] triphosphate (alpha, beta meATP), a P2X agonist, increased influx of extracellular Ca2+ and [Ca2+]i. Lucifer yellow, a small molecule which permeates P2X7 receptor-induced pores, entered(More)
After ischemic stroke, early thrombolytic therapy to reestablish tissue perfusion improves outcome but triggers a cascade of deleterious cellular and molecular events. Using a collaborative approach, our groups examined the effects of guanosine (Guo) in response to ischemic reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo. In a transient middle cerebral artery(More)
Astrocyte death may occur in neurodegenerative disorders and complicates the outcome of brain ischemia, a condition associated with high extracellular levels of adenosine and glutamate. We show that pharmacological activation of A(1) adenosine and mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors with N(6)-chlorocyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) and(More)
Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), potent mediators in inflammatory diseases, are produced by nervous tissue, but their cellular source and role in the brain are not very well known. In this report we have demonstrated that rat cultured astrocytes express the enzymes (5'-lipoxygenase and LTC(4) synthase) required for cys-LT production, and release cys-LTs in(More)
4-[[3-(1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-9-purin-9-yl)-1-oxopropyl]amino]benzoic acid (AIT-082) is an hypoxanthine derivative that stimulates in vitro neurite outgrowth and the production of adenosine and neurotrophins from astrocytes. These effects may predict an in vivo neuroprotective activity of the drug. Thus, we evaluated whether AIT-082 protected against a long-term(More)
Guanosine exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system. Apoptosis, a morphological form of programmed cell death, is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). MPP(+), a dopaminergic neurotoxin, produces in vivo and in vitro cellular changes characteristic of PD, such as cytotoxicity, resulting in apoptosis.(More)
Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological sequel to chronic brain and spinal cord injuries and disorders that slows or disrupts impulse conduction, causing further functional loss. Since oligodendroglial progenitors are present in the demyelinated areas, failure of remyelination may be due to lack of sufficient proliferation and differentiation of(More)