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The impaired extinction of acquired fear is a core symptom of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias or panic disorder, and is known to be particularly resistant to existing pharmacotherapy. We provide here evidence that a similar relationship between trait anxiety and resistance to extinction of fear memory can be mimicked in a(More)
There is evidence for a disturbed perception and processing of emotional information in pathological anxiety. Using a rat model of trait anxiety generated by selective breeding, we previously revealed differences in challenge-induced neuronal activation in fear/anxiety-related brain areas between high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety rats. To confirm whether(More)
BACKGROUND The enhanced depression-like behavior in the forced swim test displayed by rats selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) as compared with their low anxiety counterparts (LAB) is abolished by chronic paroxetine treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify neuronal substrates underlying this treatment response in HABs. (More)
In a previous work it was demonstrated that emotional stressors trigger the in vivo release of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) in brain areas known to be implicated in stress and anxiety mechanisms, such as the amygdala, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, and locus coeruleus. However, the specific role of SP within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate neurobiological correlates of trait anxiety, CD1 mice were selectively bred for extremes in anxiety-related behavior, with high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior mice additionally differing in behavioral tests reflecting depression-like behavior. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, microarray analysis, in(More)
Following secretion from the posterior pituitary, the neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP) stimulates the kidney to retain water, and when released centrally it can contribute to anxiety- and depression-like behaviours. We hypothesized that CD1 mice bred for low trait anxiety (LAB) suffer from a deficit in AVP. Both osmotically stimulated peripheral secretion and(More)
Accumulating evidence implicates the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) in the regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine stress responses. However, although projections from the DMH to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), which is the critical site of the neuroendocrine stress axis, have been described, the impact of DMH neurones in the(More)
Nature represents a vast source of chemical diversity, which is supposed to cover broader areas of chemical space than synthetically obtained substances typical of medicinal chemistry. With regard to drug discovery from nature, the terrestrial environment has been the most and longest studied source, while the investigation of compounds produced by marine(More)
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