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Experimental and computational techniques have been used to investigate the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-mediated increase in the frequency of spinal cord network activity underlying locomotion in the lamprey. Group I mGluR activation potentiated the amplitude of NMDA-induced currents in identified motoneurons and crossed caudally(More)
Astrocytes play a key role for maintenance of brain water homeostasis, but little is known about mechanisms of short-term regulation of astrocyte water permeability. Here, we report that glutamate increases astrocyte water permeability and that the molecular target for this effect is the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) serine 111 residue, which is in a strategic(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) act as modulators in the CNS of vertebrates, but their role in motor pattern generation in particular is primarily unknown. The intracellular signaling mechanisms of the group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5), and their endogenous role in regulating locomotor pattern generation have been investigated in the spinal cord(More)
The effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists and antagonists on the spinal cord network underlying locomotion in the lamprey has been analysed. The specific group I mGluR agonist (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) and the broad-spectrum mGluR agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD) both increased the(More)
The pharmacology of calcium channels involved in glutamatergic synaptic transmission from reticulospinal axons in the lamprey spinal cord was analyzed with specific agonists and antagonists of different high-voltage activated calcium channels. The N-type calcium channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx) induced a large decrease of the amplitude of(More)
The aim of this paper is to apply a non-parametric statistical tool, Ripley's K-function, to analyze the 3-dimensional distribution of pyramidal neurons. Ripley's K-function is a widely used tool in spatial point pattern analysis. There are several approaches in 2D domains in which this function is executed and analyzed. Drawing consistent inferences on the(More)
1. Different metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) can modulate synaptic transmission in different regions in the CNS, but their roles at individual synaptic connections have not been detailed. We used paired intracellular recordings from reticulospinal axons and their postsynaptic target neurons in the lamprey spinal cord to investigate the effects of(More)
Stimulation of sensory pathways is important for the normal development of cortical sensory areas, and impairments in the normal development can have long-lasting effect on animal's behavior. In particular, disturbances that occur early in development can cause permanent changes in brain structure and function. The behavioral effect of early sensory(More)
The striatum projection neurons are striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) that preferentially express D1 (D1R) and D2 (D2R) dopamine receptors, respectively. It is generally assumed that these neurons are physically intermingled, without cytoarchitectural organization although this has not been tested. To address this question(More)
Spinal networks generate the motor pattern underlying locomotion. These are subject to modulatory systems that influence their operation and thereby result in a flexible network organization. In this review, we have summarized the mechanisms by which the different metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes fine-tune the cellular and synaptic properties and(More)