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Twenty-four plant lignans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in bran extracts of 16 cereal species, in four nut species, and in two oilseed species (sesame seeds and linseeds). Eighteen of these were lignans previously unidentified in these species, and of these, 16 were identified in the analyzed samples. Four(More)
In this paper, we apply a consensus model to decision-making in committees that have to choose one or more alternatives from a set of alternatives. Decision makers may be advised to adjust their preferences in order to obtain a better consensus. A simple example is presented. The authors wish to thank gratefully Professor Hannu Nurmi for very useful(More)
A foundational development of propositional fuzzy logic programs is presented. Fuzzy logic programs are structured knowledge bases including uncertainties in rules and facts. The precise specifications of uncertainties have a great influence on the performance of the knowledge base. It is shown how fuzzy logic programs can be transformed to neural networks,(More)
The antioxidant potency and the radical scavenging capacity of superoxide and peroxyl radicals were assessed for 13 hydrophilic knotwood extracts of commercially important wood species, or fractions thereof, as well as for five pure wood-derived lignans and the flavonoid taxifolin. The chemical composition of the knotwood extracts was determined by gas(More)
We will present three paradigms for non-classical substitution. Firstly, we have the classical substitution of variables with terms. This is written in a strict categorical form supporting presentation of the other two paradigms. The second paradigm is substitutions of variables with many-valued sets of terms. These two paradigms are based on functors and(More)
The fragmentation pattern of 30 compounds belonging to different classes of the lignan family was studied by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. On the basis of the observed fragmentation patterns, identification of different types of lignans was achieved. For example, dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans showed a(More)
Composing various powerset functors with the term monad gives rise to the concept of generalised terms. This in turn provides a technique for handling many-valued sets of terms in a framework of variable substitutions, thus being the prerequisite for categorical unification in many-valued logic programming using an extended notion of terms. As constructions(More)
Techniques for monad compositions can be used to provide a basis for categorical unification in the framework of generalised terms. In [4], we gave results for the many-valued sets of terms, and showed that this composition of set functors can be extended to a monad. In this work we introduce new sufficient conditions for two monads being composable, and(More)
The chemical properties and synthetic modifications of the natural lignan hydroxymatairesinol in basic and acidic nucleophilic media were studied. Hydroxymatairesinol presumably reacts via a quinone methide and a carbonium ion mechanism under basic and acidic conditions, respectively. In these conditions the benzylic hydroxyl group was displaced by(More)