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Calcium (Ca2+) is an almost universal intracellular messenger, controlling a diverse range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, muscle contraction and cell proliferation. The ability of a simple ion such as Ca2+ to play a pivotal role in cell biology results from the facility that cells have to shape Ca2+ signals in the dimensions of space,(More)
Elementary Ca(2+) signals, such as "Ca(2+) puffs", which arise from the activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, are building blocks for local and global Ca(2+) signalling. We characterized Ca(2+) puffs in six cell types that expressed differing ratios of the three inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms. The amplitudes, spatial spreads(More)
We have used the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique to investigate volume-activated Cl- currents in BC3H1 and C2C12 cells, two mouse muscle cell lines that can be switched from a proliferating to a differentiated musclelike state. Reducing the extracellular osmolality by 40% evoked large Cl- currents in proliferating BC3H1 and C2C12(More)
The role of membrane traffic in the stimulation of apical Na+ permeability caused by increases in cytoplasmic cyclic AMP was assessed by measuring the effects of forskolin on transepithelial capacitance (CT), transepithelial conductance (GT), and short-circuit current (Isc) in A6 cultured toad kidney cells. Apical water permeability was probed by recording(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective death of motor neurons. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause familial ALS but the molecular mechanisms whereby these mutations induce motor neuron death remain controversial. Here, we show that stable overexpression of mutant human SOD1 (G37R) -(More)
Xestospongins, a group of macrocyclic bis-1-oxaquinolizidines isolated from the Australian sponge, Xestospongia species, are potent blockers of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-induced Ca2+ release in bi-directional Ca2+-flux conditions. We have now studied the effects of xestospongin C on the (45)Ca2+ uptake and the uni-directional (45)Ca2+ efflux(More)
1. We have measured changes in cell volume, membrane potential and ionic currents in distal nephron A6 cells following a challenge with hypotonic solutions (HTS). 2. The volume increase induced by HTS is compensated by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which is inhibited by both 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) and quinine. Quinine (500(More)
— This paper discusses the implementation and optimization of a novel set of algorithms that can be used to accurately realign multiple pairs of 2-D object fragments. Also, the effectiveness of a global reconstruction strategy is examined. These strategies can then be used to recombine multiple object fragments on a common image canvas. The techniques(More)