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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) form a major component of the tumor stroma. However, important concepts such as TAM heterogeneity and the nature of the monocytic TAM precursors remain speculative. Here, we show for the first time that mouse mammary tumors contained functionally distinct subsets of TAMs and provide markers for their identification.(More)
The induction of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is an important immune-evading mechanism used by tumors. However, the exact nature and function of MDSCs remain elusive, especially because they constitute a heterogeneous population that has not yet been clearly defined. Here, we identified 2 distinct MDSC subfractions with clear(More)
In order to evaluate during experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections the potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the host-parasite interrelationship, C57BL/6 TNF-alpha knockout mice (TNF-alpha-/-) as well as C57BL/6 wild-type mice were infected with pleomorphic T. brucei AnTat 1.1 E parasites. In the TNF-alpha-/- mice, the peak levels(More)
Based on the assumption that invertebrates, like vertebrates, possess factors regulating responses to infection or wounding, studies dealing with the evolution of immunity have focussed on the isolation and characterisation of putative cytokine-related molecules from invertebrates. Until recently, most of our knowledge of cytokine- and cytokine(More)
Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors that transmit African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause human sleeping sickness and veterinary infections in the African continent. These blood-feeding dipteran insects deposit saliva at the feeding site that enables the blood-feeding process. Here we demonstrate that tsetse fly saliva also accelerates(More)
Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We(More)
In experimental murine trypanosomiasis, resistance is often scored as the capacity to control peak parasitemia levels, which results in prolonged survival. Infection-induced pathology has not systematically been used as a resistance criterion. Because this parameter could be the most relevant for comparative analysis of natural and experimental infections,(More)
IFN-gamma is a key cytokine controlling Brucella infection. One of its major function is the stimulation of Brucella-killing effector mechanisms, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS)/NOS2 activity, in phagocytic cells. In this study, an attempt to identify the main cellular components of the immune response induced by Brucella melitensis in vivo is made.(More)
We have previously found that an increased tumorigenicity and spontaneous metastatic potential of BW5147-derived T lymphoma cells was associated with a decrease in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I H-2Kk antigen expression. This suggested that H-2Kk antigens may control the tumorigenic potential of BW T lymphoma cells. Our current experiments(More)
Extracellular trypanosomes can cause a wide range of diseases and pathological complications in a broad range of mammalian hosts. One common feature of trypanosomosis is the occurrence of anemia, caused by an imbalance between erythropoiesis and red blood cell clearance of aging erythrocytes. In murine models for T. brucei trypanosomosis, anemia is marked(More)