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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) form a major component of the tumor stroma. However, important concepts such as TAM heterogeneity and the nature of the monocytic TAM precursors remain speculative. Here, we show for the first time that mouse mammary tumors contained functionally distinct subsets of TAMs and provide markers for their identification.(More)
Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We(More)
Extracellular trypanosomes can cause a wide range of diseases and pathological complications in a broad range of mammalian hosts. One common feature of trypanosomosis is the occurrence of anemia, caused by an imbalance between erythropoiesis and red blood cell clearance of aging erythrocytes. In murine models for T. brucei trypanosomosis, anemia is marked(More)
IFN-gamma is a key cytokine controlling Brucella infection. One of its major function is the stimulation of Brucella-killing effector mechanisms, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS)/NOS2 activity, in phagocytic cells. In this study, an attempt to identify the main cellular components of the immune response induced by Brucella melitensis in vivo is made.(More)
Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects several million people in Latin America. Myocarditis, observed in the acute and chronic phases of the disease, is characterized by a mononuclear cell inflammatory infiltrate. We previously identified a myeloid cell population in the inflammatory heart infiltrate of infected mice(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are described as "nature's adjuvant," since they have the capacity to sensitize T cells in vivo upon first encounter with the antigen. The potent accessory properties of DC appear to develop sequentially. In particular, the ability to process antigens and to sensitize native T cells develops in sequence, a process termed "maturation"(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are exposed to multiple microenvironmental cues in tumors, which collaborate to endow these cells with protumoral activities. Hypoxia, caused by an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand because of a poorly organized vasculature, is often a prominent feature in solid tumors. However, to what extent tumor hypoxia regulates(More)
Although it is well-established that macrophages can occur in distinct activation states, the molecular characteristics of differentially activated macrophages, and particularly those of alternatively activated macrophages (aaMphi), are still poorly unraveled. Recently, we demonstrated that the expression of FIZZ1 and Ym is induced in aaMphi as compared(More)
The parasite Trypanosoma brucei possesses a large family of transmembrane receptor-like adenylate cyclases. Activation of these enzymes requires the dimerization of the catalytic domain and typically occurs under stress. Using a dominant-negative strategy, we found that reducing adenylate cyclase activity by about 50% allowed trypanosome growth but reduced(More)
African trypanosomes are extracellular parasitic protozoa, predominantly transmitted by the bite of the haematophagic tsetse fly. The main mechanism considered to mediate parasitemia control in a mammalian host is the continuous interaction between antibodies and the parasite surface, covered by variant-specific surface glycoproteins. Early experimental(More)