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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) form a major component of the tumor stroma. However, important concepts such as TAM heterogeneity and the nature of the monocytic TAM precursors remain speculative. Here, we show for the first time that mouse mammary tumors contained functionally distinct subsets of TAMs and provide markers for their identification.(More)
Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We(More)
In order to evaluate during experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections the potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the host-parasite interrelationship, C57BL/6 TNF-alpha knockout mice (TNF-alpha-/-) as well as C57BL/6 wild-type mice were infected with pleomorphic T. brucei AnTat 1.1 E parasites. In the TNF-alpha-/- mice, the peak levels(More)
Coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida earthworms contains a 42-kDa protein named coelomic cytolytic factor 1 (CCF-1) that was described previously to be involved in cytolytic, opsonizing, and hemolytic properties of the coelomic fluid. Cloning and sequencing of CCF-1 reveal significant homology with the putative catalytic region of beta-1,3- and(More)
Based on the assumption that invertebrates, like vertebrates, possess factors regulating responses to infection or wounding, studies dealing with the evolution of immunity have focussed on the isolation and characterisation of putative cytokine-related molecules from invertebrates. Until recently, most of our knowledge of cytokine- and cytokine(More)
Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors that transmit African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause human sleeping sickness and veterinary infections in the African continent. These blood-feeding dipteran insects deposit saliva at the feeding site that enables the blood-feeding process. Here we demonstrate that tsetse fly saliva also accelerates(More)
BW5147 lymphoma cells, which are noninvasive and nonmetastatic, were fused with normal T-lymphocytes. The invasiveness of the generated T-cell hybridomas was tested in hepatocyte cultures, and their metastatic potential was tested by tail vein injection. A total of 29 hybridomas generated from alloantigen-activated T-cells were all found to be invasive. One(More)
The injection of DBA/2 parental lymphocytes into adult, immunologically intact (C57BL/6 x DBA/2) F1 hybrid mice results in a chronic graft-vs-host reaction (GVHR) characterized by a deficiency in CD4+ T cell functions and a B cell activation leading to autoantibody production. The discovery that distinct subpopulations of Th cells may regulate the effector(More)
In the search for new diagnostic methods that would distinguish Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from T. b. brucei and T. b. gambiense, we have developed two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets. The first primer set was derived from the serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene of T. b. rhodesiense that confers resistance to lysis by normal human serum(More)
In experimental murine trypanosomiasis, resistance is often scored as the capacity to control peak parasitemia levels, which results in prolonged survival. Infection-induced pathology has not systematically been used as a resistance criterion. Because this parameter could be the most relevant for comparative analysis of natural and experimental infections,(More)