Patrick de Baetselier

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Infectivity of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to humans is due to its resistance to a lytic factor present in human serum. In the ETat 1 strain this character was associated with antigenic variation, since expression of the ETat 1.10 variant surface glycoprotein was required to generate resistant (R) clones. In addition, in this strain transcription of a(More)
Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are described as "nature's adjuvant," since they have the capacity to sensitize T cells in vivo upon first encounter with the antigen. The potent accessory properties of DC appear to develop sequentially. In particular, the ability to process antigens and to sensitize native T cells develops in sequence, a process termed "maturation"(More)
Although it is well-established that macrophages can occur in distinct activation states, the molecular characteristics of differentially activated macrophages, and particularly those of alternatively activated macrophages (aaMphi), are still poorly unraveled. Recently, we demonstrated that the expression of FIZZ1 and Ym is induced in aaMphi as compared(More)
Trypanosoma brucei is lysed by tumor necro-sis factor-␣ (TNF-␣) in a dose-dependent way, involving specific binding of the cytokine to a trypanosomal glycoprotein present in the flagellar pocket of the parasite. TNF-␣ –gold particles are endocytosed via coated pits and vesicles and are directed towards lysosome-like digestive organelles. The specific uptake(More)
In the search for new diagnostic methods that would distinguish Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from T. b. brucei and T. b. gambiense, we have developed two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets. The first primer set was derived from the serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene of T. b. rhodesiense that confers resistance to lysis by normal human serum(More)
Nanobodies are the smallest fragments of naturally occurring single-domain antibodies that have evolved to be fully functional in the absence of a light chain. Nanobodies are strictly monomeric, very stable, and highly soluble entities. We identified a nanobody with subnanomolar affinity for the human tumor-associated carcinoembryonic antigen. This nanobody(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not lymphotoxin (LT), is directly trypanolytic for salivarian trypanosomes. This activity was not blocked by soluble 55-kilodalton and 75-kilodalton TNF receptors, but was potently inhibited by N,N'-diacetylchitobiose, an oligosaccharide that binds TNF. Comparative sequence analysis of TNF and LT localized the trypanocidal(More)
BACKGROUND During HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART), monocytes and macrophages exhibit a wide range of dysfunctions which contribute significantly to HIV pathogenesis and therapy-associated complications. Nevertheless, the molecular components which contribute to these dysfunctions remain elusive. We therefore applied a parallel approach of(More)
The development of classically activated monocytic cells (M1) is a prerequisite for effective elimination of parasites, including African trypanosomes. However, persistent activation of M1 that produce pathogenic molecules such as TNF and NO contributes to the development of trypanosome infection-associated tissue injury including liver cell necrosis in(More)