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The microcystin (MC) content and cyanobacterial community structure of Antarctic microbial mat samples collected from 40 ponds, lakes, and hydroterrestrial environments were investigated. Samples were collected from Bratina Island and four of the Dry Valleys, Wright, Victoria, Miers, and Marshall. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), liquid(More)
In November 2008 a dog died soon after ingesting benthic "algal" mat material from the Waitaki River, New Zealand. Based on a morphological examination of environmental material, the causative organism was putatively identified as the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. Two strains (VUW25 and CYN61) were isolated and cultured to enable further(More)
A method that uses liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed for the highly sensitive and specific determination of amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, and other lipophilic algal toxins and metabolites in shellfish. The method was subjected to a full single-laboratory validation(More)
We examined metabolism of PbTxs in New Zealand cockle, Austrovenus (A.) stutchburyi, and greenshell mussel, Perna (P.) canaliculus, by means of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. PbTx-2, PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 were detected in Karenia (K.) brevis culture medium in the ratio of ca. 50:2:5. The amounts of PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 were greatly(More)
A simple and sensitive in situ method for monitoring the occurrence of toxic algal blooms and shellfish contamination events has been developed. The technique involves the passive adsorption of biotoxins onto porous synthetic resin filled sachets (SPATT bags) and their subsequent extraction and analysis. The success of the method is founded on the(More)
Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were(More)
A collaborative study was conducted on the Biosense amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of domoic acid (DA) toxins in shellfish in order to obtain interlaboratory validation data for the method. In addition, a method comparison study was performed to evaluate the ASP ELISA as an alternative to(More)
Microcystin concentrations in cyanobacteria and their accumulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and freshwater mussels (Hyridella menziesi) in Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoehu (New Zealand) were investigated. Hatchery rainbow trout were added to an enclosure in Lake Rotoiti where concentrations of microcystins in the phytoplankton and cyanobacterial cell(More)
A single-laboratory validation is reported for an LC/MS/MS quantification of six brevetoxins in four matrixes (Greenshell mussel, eastern oyster, hard clam, and Pacific oyster). Recovery and precision data were collected from seven analytical batches using shellfish flesh at 0.05 mg/kg. Method recoveries and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 73(More)
The effects of the shellfish toxin gymnodimine and its analogues (gymnodimine acetate, gymnodimine methyl carbonate and gymnodamine) on cellular viability were tested using the Neuro2a neuroblastoma cell line. Concentrations of toxins up to 10μM had variable effects on reducing cell number as determined using the MTT assay and no effects on the expression(More)