Patrick T. Holland

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The microcystin (MC) content and cyanobacterial community structure of Antarctic microbial mat samples collected from 40 ponds, lakes, and hydroterrestrial environments were investigated. Samples were collected from Bratina Island and four of the Dry Valleys, Wright, Victoria, Miers, and Marshall. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), liquid(More)
A simple and sensitive in situ method for monitoring the occurrence of toxic algal blooms and shellfish contamination events has been developed. The technique involves the passive adsorption of biotoxins onto porous synthetic resin filled sachets (SPATT bags) and their subsequent extraction and analysis. The success of the method is founded on the(More)
Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were(More)
In November 2005, at least five dogs died rapidly after contact with water from the Hutt River (lower North Island, New Zealand). Necropsy performed 24h later on one of the dogs (a 20-month-old Labrador) revealed few findings of interest, except for copious amounts of froth in the respiratory tract down to the bifurcation of the trachea and large quantities(More)
We have developed a simple and effective method for isolating pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) from Dinophysis cells collected from a natural bloom. A two-step extraction procedure followed by two column chromatography steps produced PTX-2 in high purity suitable for use as an analytical standard and for toxicological studies. Incubation of purified PTX-2 with the(More)
A method that uses liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed for the highly sensitive and specific determination of amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, and other lipophilic algal toxins and metabolites in shellfish. The method was subjected to a full single-laboratory validation(More)
Investigations into a series of dog poisonings on beaches in Auckland, North Island, New Zealand, resulted in the identification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the grey side-gilled sea slug, Pleurobranchaea maculata. The levels of TTX in P. maculata, assayed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) ranged from 91 to 850 mg kg(-1) with a median level of(More)
We examined metabolism of PbTxs in New Zealand cockle, Austrovenus (A.) stutchburyi, and greenshell mussel, Perna (P.) canaliculus, by means of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. PbTx-2, PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 were detected in Karenia (K.) brevis culture medium in the ratio of ca. 50:2:5. The amounts of PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 were greatly(More)
Cyanobacterial blooms in New Zealand surface water resources have been surveyed and, in response to strict new standards for drinking water, more intensive monitoring for cyanotoxins has been initiated. Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi was recently identified in a New Zealand lake and was found to produce the potent neurotoxin anatoxin-a (ATX). A strain of Aph.(More)
In November 2008 a dog died soon after ingesting benthic "algal" mat material from the Waitaki River, New Zealand. Based on a morphological examination of environmental material, the causative organism was putatively identified as the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. Two strains (VUW25 and CYN61) were isolated and cultured to enable further(More)