Patrick T. F. Kennedy

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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic infection in more than 350 million people worldwide. It replicates in hepatocytes but is non-cytopathic; liver damage is thought to be immune mediated. Here, we investigated the role of innate immune responses in mediating liver damage in patients with chronic HBV infection. Longitudinal analysis revealed a temporal(More)
NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic(More)
A regulatory subset of B cells has been found to modulate immune responses in autoimmunity, infection, and cancer, but it has not been investigated in the setting of human persistent viral infection. IL-10 is elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), but its cellular sources and impact on antiviral T cells have not been addressed.(More)
CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells have been shown to maintain peripheral tolerance against self and foreign antigens. In this study we analyzed the effect of circulating CD4+ CD25+ T cells on CD8+-T-cell responses of patients with chronic and resolved hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We demonstrated that circulating CD4+ CD25+ T cells modulate the function(More)
The inflamed liver in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is characterized by a large influx of non-virus-specific CD8 T cells. Little is known about the functional capacity of these lymphocytes, which could provide insights into mechanisms of failure of viral control and liver damage in this setting. We compared the effector function of total(More)
The S-type lectin galectin-9 binds to the negative regulatory molecule Tim-3 on T cells and induces their apoptotic deletion or functional inactivation. We investigated whether galectin-9/Tim-3 interactions contribute to the deletion and exhaustion of the antiviral T cell response in chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB). We found Tim-3 to be expressed(More)
UNLABELLED An excess of coinhibitory signals has been proposed to drive the T-cell exhaustion characteristic of persistent viral infections. In this study we examined the contribution of the coinhibitory receptor cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to CD8 T cell tolerance in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB). CD8 T cells in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection acquired perinatally or in early childhood has been associated with a prolonged phase of immune tolerance from viral exposure into early adulthood. The immune-tolerant phase of the disease is characterized by high levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normal liver biochemistry, with minimal or no(More)
Antiviral T cell responses in hepatotropic viral infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are profoundly diminished and prone to apoptotic deletion. In this study, we investigate whether the large population of activated NK cells in the human liver contributes to this process. We show that in vitro removal of NK cells augments circulating CD8(+) T cell(More)
BACKGROUND Liver involvement in sarcoidosis is variable and can occur in the absence of pulmonary disease. Data on the natural history of hepatic sarcoid and response to therapy are lacking. This study investigates hepatic dysfunction complicating lung disease and significant liver involvement presenting independent of pulmonary sarcoid. PATIENTS AND(More)