Patrick T. F. Kennedy

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CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells have been shown to maintain peripheral tolerance against self and foreign antigens. In this study we analyzed the effect of circulating CD4+ CD25+ T cells on CD8+-T-cell responses of patients with chronic and resolved hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We demonstrated that circulating CD4+ CD25+ T cells modulate the function(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic infection in more than 350 million people worldwide. It replicates in hepatocytes but is non-cytopathic; liver damage is thought to be immune mediated. Here, we investigated the role of innate immune responses in mediating liver damage in patients with chronic HBV infection. Longitudinal analysis revealed a temporal(More)
NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic(More)
The inflamed liver in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is characterized by a large influx of non-virus-specific CD8 T cells. Little is known about the functional capacity of these lymphocytes, which could provide insights into mechanisms of failure of viral control and liver damage in this setting. We compared the effector function of total(More)
The S-type lectin galectin-9 binds to the negative regulatory molecule Tim-3 on T cells and induces their apoptotic deletion or functional inactivation. We investigated whether galectin-9/Tim-3 interactions contribute to the deletion and exhaustion of the antiviral T cell response in chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB). We found Tim-3 to be expressed(More)
Antiviral T cell responses in hepatotropic viral infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are profoundly diminished and prone to apoptotic deletion. In this study, we investigate whether the large population of activated NK cells in the human liver contributes to this process. We show that in vitro removal of NK cells augments circulating CD8(+) T cell(More)
Optimal immune activation of naïve CD8 T cells requires signal 1 mediated by the T cell receptor, signal 2 mediated by co-stimulation and signal 3 provided by pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the potential for signal 3 cytokines to rescue anti-viral responses in functionally exhausted T cells has not been defined. We investigated the effect of using(More)
CD8 T cells exert their antiviral function through cytokines and lysis of infected cells. Because hepatocytes are susceptible to noncytolytic mechanisms of viral clearance, CD8 T-cell antiviral efficiency against hepatotropic viruses has been linked to their capacity to produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). On the(More)
The ability of innate immune cells to sense and respond to impending danger varies by anatomical location. The liver is considered tolerogenic but is still capable of mounting a successful immune response to clear various infections. To understand whether hepatic immune cells tune their response to different infectious challenges, we probed mononuclear(More)
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in disparate degrees of tissue injury: the virus can either replicate without pathological consequences or trigger immune-mediated necroinflammatory liver damage. We investigated the potential for myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to suppress T cell-mediated immunopathology in this setting. Granulocytic(More)