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Authors/Task Force members: Stephan Windecker* (ESC Chairperson) (Switzerland), Philippe Kolh* (EACTS Chairperson) (Belgium), Fernando Alfonso (Spain), Jean-Philippe Collet (France), Jochen Cremer (Germany), Volkmar Falk (Switzerland), Gerasimos Filippatos (Greece), Christian Hamm (Germany), Stuart J. Head (The Netherlands), Peter Jüni (Switzerland), A.(More)
BACKGROUND Vagal stimulation shortens the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and maintains atrial fibrillation (AF). This study investigated whether the parasympathetic pathways that innervate the atria can be identified and ablated by use of transvenous catheter stimulation and radiofrequency current catheter ablation (RFCA) techniques. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND We assessed the safety and feasibility of permanent implantation of a novel coronary sinus mitral repair device (PTMA, Viacor Inc). METHODS AND RESULTS Symptomatic (New York Heart Association class 2 or 3) patients with primarily functional mitral regurgitation (MR) were included. A diagnostic PTMA procedure was performed in the coronary sinus(More)
INTRODUCTION Focal paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) was shown recently to originate in the pulmonary veins (PVs) and superior vena cava (SVC). In the present study, we describe an animal model in which local high-frequency electrical stimulation produces focal atrial activation and AF/AT (atrial tachycardia) with electrogram characteristics consistent(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac parasympathetic nerves run alongside the superior vena cava (SVC) and accumulate particularly epicardially adjacent to the orifice of the coronary sinus (CS). In animals, these nerves can be electrically stimulated inside the SVC or CS, which results in negative chronotropic/dromotropic effects and negative inotropic effects in the atria(More)
INTRODUCTION Catheter stimulation of the inferior interatrial ganglionated parasympathetic plexus decreases the ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation (AF) in humans. However, the relatively high stimulation voltages might prevent implementation of neurostimulation in chronic implantable devices. From myocardial electrostimulation it is known that the(More)
INTRODUCTION Atrial fibrosis has been shown to concur with the persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and is only incompletely reversible, thus counteracting attempts to restore and maintain sinus rhythm (SR). Besides the angiotensin system, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a major role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Thus, the present study(More)
In the heart, acetylcholine (ACh) slows pacemaker activity, depresses contractility and slows conduction in the atrioventricular node. Beside these cardiovascular effects, ACh has also been associated with an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathway. There is no evidence for ACh synthesis and excretion in other cell types than neuronal cells in the(More)
Electroanatomic mapping systems have permitted and facilitated difficult interventional ablation procedures for more than a decade. Initially, their use has been in arrhythmias in which the ablation target is difficult to identify, such as ventricular tachycardias in structural heart disease, atypical atrial flutters, or arrhythmias in patients with complex(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to evaluate whether left ventricular (LV) lead position in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can be determined by myocardial deformation imaging during LV pacing and to compare imaging techniques for analysis of LV lead position. BACKGROUND LV lead position has a significant impact on effectiveness of CRT, but clinically(More)