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Do humans integrate experience on specific routes into metric survey knowledge of the environment, or do they depend on a simpler strategy of landmark navigation? The authors tested this question using a novel shortcut paradigm during walking in a virtual environment. The authors find that participants could not take successful shortcuts in a desert world(More)
Immersive virtual environments are a promising research tool for the study of perception and action, on the assumption that visual--motor behavior in virtual and real environments is essentially similar. We investigated this issue for locomotor behavior and tested the generality of Fajen and Warren's [2003] steering dynamics model. Participants walked to a(More)
The effects of TGF-beta 1 on osteoclastic resorption of fetal mouse calvaria and long bones at various stages of development was studied in organ culture. In resorbing calvariae and long bones with an established marrow cavity TGF-beta 1 (4-10 ng/ml) had a stimulating effect on 45Ca release that was partially inhibited by indomethacin. In primitive long(More)
How does a baseball outfielder know where to run to catch a fly ball? The "outfielder problem" remains unresolved, and its solution would provide a window into the visual control of action. It may seem obvious that human action is based on an internal model of the physical world, such that the fielder predicts the landing point based on a mental model of(More)
Using a metric shortcut paradigm, we have found that like honeybees (Dyer in Animal Behaviour 41:239-246, 1991), humans do not seem to build a metric "cognitive map" from path integration. Instead, observers take novel shortcuts based on visual landmarks whenever they are available and reliable (Foo, Warren, Duchon, & Tarr in Journal of Experimental(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of age on hip proprioception, and determine whether age-related hip proprioception declines disrupt balance. DESIGN Survey of proprioception and balance differences between 3 age groups. SETTING University balance laboratory. PARTICIPANTS Volunteer sample of independent community-dwelling adults (N=102) without(More)
Milner and Goodale (1995, 2006, 2008) have advanced a justly influential theory of the structure of the human visual system. In broad outline, Milner and Goodale hold that the ventral neural pathway is associated with recognition and experiential awareness, and with a kind of indirect control of action. And they hold that, by contrast, the dorsal neural(More)
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