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CONTEXT Early-onset alcoholism differs from late-onset alcoholism by its association with greater serotonergic abnormality and antisocial behaviors. Thus, individuals with early-onset alcoholism may be responsive to treatment with a selective serotonergic agent. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that drinking outcomes associated with early vs late-onset(More)
Traditional cue reactivity provides a methodology for examining drug triggers and stimuli in laboratory and clinical settings. However, current techniques lack standardization and generalization across research settings. Improved methodologies using virtual reality (VR) cue reactivity extend previous research standardizing exposure to stimuli and exploring(More)
RATIONALE Dopamine (DA) pathways in the midbrain mediate d-methamphetamine's rewarding effects associated with its abuse liability. Isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, reduces the rewarding effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and d-amphetamine, presumably by antagonizing these central DA pathways. This is the first(More)
Cigarette smokers, when confronted with cues associated with smoking, evidence strong reactions, including increased attentional bias toward those smoking-related cues. These reactions have not been extensively studied in young adult smokers, a group that research suggests may respond differently than adults or adolescent smokers. Furthermore, the impact of(More)
Rates of cigarette smoking are 3- to 4-fold greater among those with cocaine-dependence, and compared to non-users, cocaine users are at greater risk of incurring smoking-related negative health effects and death. The current study examined D-cycloserine's (0 or 50mg once weekly) effects on 1) extinction of cue-induced craving for cigarettes, 2) cigarette(More)
Drug craving has purportedly been linked to relapse and to substance use. For over two decades, cue reactivity has been a viable method to assess craving and physiological reactions to drug stimuli. However, traditional cue reactivity has faced the following limitations: austere situations or stimuli, lack of complex cues, lack of standardization, and(More)
The use of virtual reality (VR) programs in behavioral science research has been gaining prominence over the past several years. In the field of substance abuse, VR cue reactivity programs have been successfully tested for feasibility in nicotine and cocaine dependent samples. Seeking to expand VR applications in alcohol cue research, a novel VR alcohol cue(More)
Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it(More)
1. The authors studied the effects of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, on d-methamphetamine-induced changes in somatic and psychological perceptions of hunger state using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, Latin Square, cross-over design in 18 healthy volunteers. 2. D-methamphetamine significantly decreased these subjective(More)
Animal models of psychopathology have been extremely valuable in conceptualizing various human disorders. The human condition known as trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling) has considerable similarities with an avian disorder called feather picking, with respect to analogous behavior, proposed etiologies, evoking cues, response to behavior therapy, and(More)