Patrick Rampal

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BACKGROUND Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms which confer a health benefit on the host. Although most probiotics are bacteria, one strain of yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, has been found to be an effective probiotic in double-blind clinical studies. AIMS To compare the main properties that differentiates yeast from bacteria and to review the(More)
Use of the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of infectious diarrhea has attracted growing interest. The present study designed to investigate the effect of this yeast on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)-associated disease demonstrates that S. boulardii abrogated the alterations induced by an EPEC strain on transepithelial(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to identify factors that facilitate bilateral insertion of metal stents in malignant hilar stenoses, for which plastic stents often result in incomplete drainage and subsequent cholangitis. METHODS Between January 1994 and April 1998, we collected 45 cases of advanced (Bismuth stage II or higher) hilar malignant(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections are associated with hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). In vivo, elevated plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in EHEC-infected children are correlated with a high risk of developing HUS. As IL-8 gene transcription is regulated by the transcription(More)
Induction of apoptosis and necrosis by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) has been reported in vivo and in vitro, but features of cell death were not noted in those reports. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been implicated in the apoptosis of invasive bacteria, we investigated the role of this cytokine in EHEC-induced apoptosis. We(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits the secretion induced by cholera toxin (CT) in rat jejunum. The present study was aimed at unraveling the mechanism by which S. boulardii protects intestinal cells against CT. METHODS CT-induced adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in intestinal(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections are associated with the modification of tight-junction permeability and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). In a previous study, it was demonstrated that EHEC-induced IL-8 secretion is due to the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), AP-1, and NF-kappaB(More)
AIM Diarrhea is a significant problem in patients on total enteral nutrition (TEN) and may involve changes in intestinal short chain fatty acids or microflora. Recent studies suggest that the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) may decrease its incidence. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Sb on fecal flora and short-chain fatty(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection of T84 cells induces a decrease in transepithelial resistance, the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, and cytokine production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of EPEC to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in T84 cells and to correlate these signaling(More)