Patrick R Stevens

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Previous work has demonstrated that 40% of clinically isolated Escherichia coli are resistant to in vitro killing by normal human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) due to ineffective opsonophagocytosis. Using these E. coli isolates, we have demonstrated the usefulness of measuring the chemiluminescence (CL) of granulocytes undergoing phagocytosis in(More)
HIV-1 infected individuals live longer but experience a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells lead to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the(More)
For the last two decades, gram-negative rod bacteremia has been the major infectious disease problem developing in patients hospitalized in the United States and many European countries. Mortality rates are high and have exceeded 30% in patients with serious underlying diseases. The most commonly isolated organisms are Escherichia coli,(More)
The K1 Escherichia coli capsular antigen has been implicated as a virulence factor because of the frequency of isolation of K1 containing strains from certain invasive human infections. In the study of the interaction between K1 strains, normal human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and fresh human serum, we have found varying susceptibility to phagocytosis(More)
Two immunoprophylactic approaches to the control of infections caused by gramnegative bacilli were evaluated by study of experimental infections in animals. The core glycolipid antigen derived from the Re mutant of Salmonella minnesota R595 is shared by virtually all enteric bacteria, and immunization with this endotoxin protects against the hemodynamic(More)
Neutrophil (PMNL) function defects occur as a consequence of HIV infection. This study examined PMNL apoptosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to determine if accelerated apoptosis contributes to impaired function. PMNL were isolated from 10 HIV-infected patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts < 200/mm3 without signs of active(More)
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most common bloodstream pathogen isolated from patients with AIDS. We have previously shown that TNF alone or in combination with IL-2 can activate human and murine macrophages in vitro to kill MAC strains isolated from disseminated infections. To determine whether treatment with TNF and IL-2 could effect the course(More)
Antibodies against the "core" glycolipid of Enterobacteriaceae (2-keto, 3-deoxyoctonate-Lipid A) have been associated with protection against the sequelae of gram-negative rod bacteremia. To investigate the nature of this protection, dogs and rabbits were immunized with purified glycolipid prepared by phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether extraction of the "Re"(More)
A virulence factor of E. coli K-1 is its capacity to avoid opsonization via the alternative complement pathway (ACP). Since it is not known if E. coli with other capsular (K) antigens have similar properties we examined various capsular E. coli for opsonization by the ACP. To assess opsonization we used whole blood luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL)(More)