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Any investigation of the total number of neurons in a given brain region must first address the following questions. What is the best method for estimating the total number of neurons? What are the validity and the expected precision of the obtained data? What precision must the estimates attain with respect to the scientific question? In the present study,(More)
A fundamental challenge in understanding how dendritic spine morphology controls learning and memory has been quantifying three-dimensional (3D) spine shapes with sufficient precision to distinguish morphologic types, and sufficient throughput for robust statistical analysis. The necessity to analyze large volumetric data sets accurately, efficiently, and(More)
Tau proteins belong to the family of microtubule-associated proteins. They are mainly expressed in neurons where they play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules to constitute the neuronal microtubules network. Microtubules are involved in maintaining the cell shape and serve as tracks for axonal transport. Tau proteins also(More)
We report the existence and distribution of an unusual type of projection neuron, a large, spindle-shaped cell, in layer Vb of the anterior cingulate cortex of pongids and hominids. These spindle cells were not observed in any other primate species or any other mammalian taxa, and their volume was correlated with brain volume residuals, a measure of(More)
Quantitative morphology of the CNS has recently undergone major developments. In particular, several new approaches, known as design-based stereologic methods, have become available and have been successfully applied to neuromorphological research. However, much confusion and uncertainty remains about the meaning, implications, and advantages of these(More)
Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The(More)
Stressful life events have been implicated clinically in the pathogenesis of mental illness, but the neural substrates that may account for this observation remain poorly understood. Attentional impairments symptomatic of these psychiatric conditions are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in a network of prefrontal cortical structures.(More)
The surface morphology and cytoarchitecture of human cingulate cortex was evaluated in the brains of 27 neurologically intact individuals. Variations in surface features included a single cingulate sulcus (CS) with or without segmentation or double parallel sulci with or without segmentation. The single CS was deeper (9.7 +/- 0.81 mm) than in cases with(More)
The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in frontoinsular (FI) and anterior cingulate cortex in great apes and humans, but not other primates. We performed stereological counts of the VENs in FI and LA (limbic anterior, a component of anterior cingulate cortex) in great apes and in humans. The VENs are more numerous in humans than in(More)
A comprehensive three-dimensional digital atlas database of the C57BL/6J mouse brain was developed based on magnetic resonance microscopy images acquired on a 17.6-T superconducting magnet. By using both manual tracing and an atlas-based semi-automatic segmentation approach, T2-weighted magnetic resonance microscopy images of 10 adult male formalin-fixed,(More)