Patrick R. Hof

Learn More
Tau proteins belong to the family of microtubule-associated proteins. They are mainly expressed in neurons where they play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules to constitute the neuronal microtubules network. Microtubules are involved in maintaining the cell shape and serve as tracks for axonal transport. Tau proteins also(More)
Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive(More)
A fundamental challenge in understanding how dendritic spine morphology controls learning and memory has been quantifying three-dimensional (3D) spine shapes with sufficient precision to distinguish morphologic types, and sufficient throughput for robust statistical analysis. The necessity to analyze large volumetric data sets accurately, efficiently, and(More)
Stressful life events have been implicated clinically in the pathogenesis of mental illness, but the neural substrates that may account for this observation remain poorly understood. Attentional impairments symptomatic of these psychiatric conditions are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in a network of prefrontal cortical structures.(More)
OBJECTIVE Cytoarchitectonic changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, mammillary bodies, and septum were reported in a postmortem study of autism. Previously, the authors found smaller cingulate volume and decreased metabolism of the cingulate in seven autistic patients. In this study, they measured the(More)
Both the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) play an important role in the negative feedback regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity during physiologic and behavioral stress. Moreover, chronic behavioral stress is known to affect the morphology of CA3c pyramidal neurons in the rat, by reducing total branch number and(More)
The surface morphology and cytoarchitecture of human cingulate cortex was evaluated in the brains of 27 neurologically intact individuals. Variations in surface features included a single cingulate sulcus (CS) with or without segmentation or double parallel sulci with or without segmentation. The single CS was deeper (9.7 +/- 0.81 mm) than in cases with(More)
We propose that the anterior cingulate cortex is a specialization of neocortex rather than a more primitive stage of cortical evolution. Functions central to intelligent behavior, that is, emotional self-control, focused problem solving, error recognition, and adaptive response to changing conditions, are juxtaposed with the emotions in this structure.(More)
Cognitive impairment in normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases is accompanied by altered morphologies on multiple scales. Understanding of the role of these structural changes in producing functional deficits in brain aging and neuropsychiatric disorders requires accurate three-dimensional representations of neuronal morphology, and realistic(More)
We recommend a new term, “primary age-related tauopathy” (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these “NFT+/Aβ−”(More)