Patrick R. Gentry

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An analysis of the uncertainty in guidelines for the ingestion of methylmercury (MeHg) due to human pharmacokinetic variability was conducted using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that describes MeHg kinetics in the pregnant human and fetus. Two alternative derivations of an ingestion guideline for MeHg were considered: the U.S.(More)
The therapeutic potential of small molecule signaling inhibitors is often limited by off-target effects. Recently, in a screen for compounds that perturb the zebrafish embryonic dorsoventral axis, we identified dorsomorphin, the first selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Here we show that dorsomorphin has significant(More)
Previous clinical and animal studies suggest that selective activators of M(1) and/or M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have potential as novel therapeutic agents for treatment of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. However, highly selective centrally penetrant activators of either M(1) or M(4) have not been available, making it impossible(More)
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models differ from conventional compartmental pharmacokinetic models in that they are based to a large extent on the actual physiology of the organism. The application of pharmacokinetics to toxicology or risk assessment requires that the toxic effects in a particular tissue are related in some way to the(More)
Increasing sophistication in methods used to account for human variability in susceptibility to toxicants has been one of the success stories in the continuing evolution of risk assessment science. Genetic polymorphisms have been suggested as an important contributor to overall human variability. Recently, data on polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes have(More)
Vinyl chloride (VC) is a trans-species carcinogen, producing tumors in a variety of tissues, from both inhalation and oral exposures, across a number of species. In particular, exposure to VC has been associated with a rare tumor, liver angiosarcoma, in a large number of studies in mice, rats, and humans. The mode of action for the carcinogenicity of VC(More)
An updated PBPK model of methylene chloride (DCM, dichloromethane) carcinogenicity in mice was recently published using Bayesian statistical methods (Marino et al., 2006). In this work, this model was applied to humans, as recommended by Sweeney et al.(2004). Physiological parameters for input into the MCMC analysis were selected from multiple sources(More)
Risk assessments for vinyl chloride (VC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are presented as examples of approaches for incorporating chemical-specific pharmacokinetic and mechanistic information into a more scientifically plausible cancer risk assessment. For VC, the evidence regarding mode of action includes direct reaction of a metabolite with DNA, resulting in(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed that provides a comprehensive description of the kinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCOH), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), in the mouse, rat, and human for both oral and inhalation exposure. The model includes descriptions of(More)
An interspecies physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing isopropanol (IPA) and its major metabolite, acetone, was applied to perform route-to-route and cross-species dosimetry to derive reference dose (RfD) and reference concentration (RfC) values for IPA. Adult PBPK models for rats and humans were extended to simulate exposure to IPA(More)