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An analysis of the uncertainty in guidelines for the ingestion of methylmercury (MeHg) due to human pharmacokinetic variability was conducted using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that describes MeHg kinetics in the pregnant human and fetus. Two alternative derivations of an ingestion guideline for MeHg were considered: the U.S.(More)
Previous clinical and animal studies suggest that selective activators of M(1) and/or M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have potential as novel therapeutic agents for treatment of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. However, highly selective centrally penetrant activators of either M(1) or M(4) have not been available, making it impossible(More)
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models differ from conventional compartmental pharmacokinetic models in that they are based to a large extent on the actual physiology of the organism. The application of pharmacokinetics to toxicology or risk assessment requires that the toxic effects in a particular tissue are related in some way to the(More)
The therapeutic potential of small molecule signaling inhibitors is often limited by off-target effects. Recently, in a screen for compounds that perturb the zebrafish embryonic dorsoventral axis, we identified dorsomorphin, the first selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Here we show that dorsomorphin has significant(More)
Vinyl chloride (VC) is a trans-species carcinogen, producing tumors in a variety of tissues, from both inhalation and oral exposures, across a number of species. In particular, exposure to VC has been associated with a rare tumor, liver angiosarcoma, in a large number of studies in mice, rats, and humans. The mode of action for the carcinogenicity of VC(More)
Increasing sophistication in methods used to account for human variability in susceptibility to toxicants has been one of the success stories in the continuing evolution of risk assessment science. Genetic polymorphisms have been suggested as an important contributor to overall human variability. Recently, data on polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes have(More)
In recent years, there have been growing concerns that due to differences, both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic, between children and adults, children could be at greater risk of adverse effects following chemical exposure. The specific goal of this study was to demonstrate an approach for using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed that provides a comprehensive description of the kinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCOH), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), in the mouse, rat, and human for both oral and inhalation exposure. The model includes descriptions of(More)
The presence of druggable, topographically distinct allosteric sites on a wide range of receptor families has offered new paradigms for small molecules to modulate receptor function. Moreover, ligands that target allosteric sites offer significant advantages over the corresponding orthosteric ligands in terms of selectivity, including subtype selectivity(More)
An updated PBPK model of methylene chloride (DCM, dichloromethane) carcinogenicity in mice was recently published using Bayesian statistical methods (Marino et al., 2006). In this work, this model was applied to humans, as recommended by Sweeney et al.(2004). Physiological parameters for input into the MCMC analysis were selected from multiple sources(More)