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In drug discovery and nonclinical development the volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) of each novel drug candidate is commonly determined under in vivo conditions. Therefore, it is of interest to predict V(ss) without conducting in vivo studies. The traditional description of V(ss) corresponds to the sum of the products of each tissue:plasma(More)
The objectives of the present study were (1) to develop an algorithm to predict tissue:blood partition coefficients (PCs) of organic chemicals from n-octanol: water (Ko/w) PC data, and (2) to apply this algorithm to predict the rat tissue:blood PCs of some relatively hydrophilic organics, particularly ketones, alcohols, and acetate esters. The algorithm,(More)
The objective of this study was to use in synergy physiologically based and empirical approaches to estimate the drug-specific input parameters of PBPK models of disposition to simulate the plasma concentration-time profile of epiroprim in human. The estimated input parameters were the tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Pt:p) for distribution and the(More)
Tissue:plasma (P(t:p)) partition coefficients (PCs) are important parameters describing tissue distribution of drugs. The ultimate goal in early drug discovery is to develop and validate in silico methods for predicting a priori the P(t:p) for each new drug candidate. In this context, tissue composition-based equations have recently been developed and(More)
This study, conducted in 1987 and 1988, has made it possible to quantify exposure to noise among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators. The average daily noise exposure was 84 to 99 dBA for heavy equipment, 90 dBA for the laborer, and 74 to 97 dBA for the crane operator. The main sources of noise to which heavy equipment(More)
The tissue:plasma (P(t:p)) partition coefficients (PCs) are important drug-specific input parameters in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models used to estimate the disposition of drugs in biota. Until now the use of PBPK models in early stages of the drug discovery process was not possible, since the estimation of P(t:p) of new drug candidates(More)
A biologically-based algorithm for predicting the tissue: blood partition coefficients (PCs) of organic chemicals has been developed. The approach consisted of (i) describing tissues and blood in terms of their neutral lipid, phospholipid, and water contents, (ii) obtaining data on the solubility of chemicals in n-octanol and water, and (iii) calculating(More)
The objective of this study was to develop an approach for incorporating tissue composition data into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in order to facilitate "built-in" calculation of tissue: air partition coefficients (PCs) of volatile organic chemicals. The approach involved characterizing tissue compartments within PBPK models as a(More)
Mechanistically based predictions of skin permeability coefficients (Kp) derived solely on the basis of molecular structure information of organic compounds have not been reported previously. The objective of the present study was to predict the human abdominal Kp of structurally unrelated organic compounds using a mechanistic equation that takes into(More)
The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for simulating human plasma concentration-time profiles for the unique drug dataset of blinded data that has been assembled as part of a Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America initiative. Combinations of absorption, distribution,(More)