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Our goal was to develop strategies to quantify the accumulation of model therapeutics in small brain metastases using multimodal imaging, in order to enhance the potential for successful treatment. Human melanoma cells were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of immunodeficient mice. Bioluminescent, MR and PET imaging were applied to evaluate the(More)
HLA-E is a ligand for the immune-inhibitory NKG2A receptor expressed on NK and T cells. To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry. Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly(More)
BACKGROUND A major hallmark of malignant progression in human astrocytomas is the formation of new blood vessels. Antiangiogenic therapy using the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-antibody bevacizumab leads to increased progression-free survival in glioblastoma patients but does not influence their overall survival. To date, it is unclear why(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the relevance of bevacizumab (BEV)-induced diffusion-restricted lesions and T1-hyperintense lesions in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. METHODS We prospectively screened 74 BEV-treated patients with recurrent glioblastoma for (1) diffusion-restricted lesions and/or, (2) lesions with a hyperintense signal on precontrast(More)
BACKGROUND Current pathological diagnostics include the analysis of (epi-)genetic alterations as well as oncogenic pathways. Deregulated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling has been implicated in a variety of cancers including malignant gliomas and is considered a promising target in cancer treatment. Monitoring of mTORC1 activity(More)
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations are frequent in astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. We previously reported the generation of a mutation-specific antibody that specifically detects R132H mutated IDH1 protein (clone H09). Here, we investigate the feasibility of H09 immunohistochemistry to differentiate between(More)
BACKGROUND Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Gliomas display prime examples of ionizing radiation (IR) resistant tumors. The IAP Survivin is reported to be critically involved in radiation resistance by anti-apoptotic and by caspase-independent mechanisms. The present study aimed to elucidate an interrelationship between Survivin's cellular localization and DNA damage repair in(More)
In the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) the impact of radical tumor resection as first line therapy is beyond controversy. The significance of a second resection in case of tumor-recurrence remains unclear and is an issue of debate. Since GBMs always recur, it is important to determine whether or not patients will benefit from repeat surgery. We performed a(More)
The migration of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) into the brain parenchyma and release of their abundant proteases are considered the main causes of neuronal cell death and reperfusion injury following ischemia. Yet, therapies targeting PMN egress have been largely ineffective. To address this discrepancy we investigated the temporo-spatial(More)