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HLA-E is a ligand for the immune-inhibitory NKG2A receptor expressed on NK and T cells. To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry. Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly(More)
BACKGROUND Current pathological diagnostics include the analysis of (epi-)genetic alterations as well as oncogenic pathways. Deregulated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling has been implicated in a variety of cancers including malignant gliomas and is considered a promising target in cancer treatment. Monitoring of mTORC1 activity(More)
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations are frequent in astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. We previously reported the generation of a mutation-specific antibody that specifically detects R132H mutated IDH1 protein (clone H09). Here, we investigate the feasibility of H09 immunohistochemistry to differentiate between(More)
The migration of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) into the brain parenchyma and release of their abundant proteases are considered the main causes of neuronal cell death and reperfusion injury following ischemia. Yet, therapies targeting PMN egress have been largely ineffective. To address this discrepancy we investigated the temporo-spatial(More)
BACKGROUND Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as(More)
AIMS Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and its ligand netrin-1 are known as axonal guidance factors, being involved in angiogenesis, migration and survival of precursor cells in the embryonic mammalian central nervous system (CNS). So far, little is known about the distribution of those molecules in human CNS development. METHODS We investigated 22 human(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is treated by surgical resection followed by radiochemotherapy. Bevacizumab is commonly deployed for anti-angiogenic therapy of recurrent GBM; however, innate immune cells have been identified as instigators of resistance to bevacizumab treatment. We identified angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) as a potential target in both naive and(More)
Mutations of the human plectin gene (PLEC) on chromosome 8q24 cause autosomal recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD). In the present study we analyzed the downstream effects of PLEC mutations on plectin protein expression and localization, the structure of the extrasarcomeric desmin cytoskeleton, protein aggregate formation(More)
The multifunctional molecule netrin-1 is upregulated in various malignancies and has recently been presented as a major general player in tumorigenesis leading to tumor progression and maintenance in various animal models. However, there is still a lack of clinico-epidemiological data related to netrin-1 expression. Therefore, the aim of our study was to(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor, is among the most lethal neoplasms, with a median survival of approximately 1 year. Prognosis is poor since GBMs possess a strong migratory and highly invasive potential, making complete surgical resection impossible. Reduced expression of carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a neuropeptide-processing enzyme,(More)