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BACKGROUND The true burden of reactivation of remote latent tuberculosis infection (reactivation TB) among foreign-born persons with tuberculosis (TB) within the United States is not known. Our study objectives were to estimate the proportion of foreign-born persons with TB due reactivation TB and to describe characteristics of foreign-born persons with(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the epidemiology of human Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis (TB) in the United States is imperative; this disease can be foodborne or airborne, and current US control strategies are focused on TB due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and airborne transmission. The National TB Genotyping Service's work has allowed systematic(More)
BACKGROUND Acquired resistance to second-line drugs (SLDs) is a problem in treating patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis worldwide. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for acquired resistance (AR) to injectable SLDs (INJ SLDs) and fluoroquinolones in the US National tuberculosis Surveillance System, 1993-2008. METHODS We(More)
Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates (genotyping) can be used by public health programs to more readily identify tuberculosis (TB) transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service has offered M. tuberculosis genotyping for every culture-confirmed case in the United(More)
To determine the proportion of reported tuberculosis (TB) cases due to recent transmission in the United States, we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine culture-positive TB cases with complete genotype results (spoligotyping and 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing) reported during January(More)
BACKGROUND Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has revealed 4 major phylogenetic lineages with differential distribution worldwide. It is not clear whether different lineages are associated with different sites of infection (eg, pulmonary tuberculosis versus extrapulmonary tuberculosis). We sought to determine whether M. tuberculosis lineage is(More)
RATIONALE Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is currently based on the tuberculin skin test. The enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) is a new blood test to diagnose LTBI. OBJECTIVE To compare the ELISPOT and the tuberculin skin test for detecting LTBI in contacts of patients with tuberculosis. METHODS Prospective study of 413(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are attractive alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the inability to definitively confirm the presence of most M. tuberculosis infections hampers assessment of IGRA accuracy. Although IGRAs are primarily indicated for the detection of(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) control efforts are often ineffective in controlling TB among patients who use illicit drugs or abuse alcohol (substance abuse). This study examined the prevalence of substance abuse among TB cases reported in the United States and assessed the relation between substance abuse and indicators of TB transmission. METHODS A(More)
The epidemiology of tuberculosis is changing in the United States as a result of immigration, yet the extent to which different classes of immigrants contribute to overall morbidity is unknown. Tuberculosis in nonimmigrant visitors is of particular interest as they are currently exempt from screening requirements. We conducted a prospective survey of all(More)