Patrick Moonan

Learn More
BACKGROUND Understanding the epidemiology of human Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis (TB) in the United States is imperative; this disease can be foodborne or airborne, and current US control strategies are focused on TB due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and airborne transmission. The National TB Genotyping Service's work has allowed systematic(More)
BACKGROUND The true burden of reactivation of remote latent tuberculosis infection (reactivation TB) among foreign-born persons with tuberculosis (TB) within the United States is not known. Our study objectives were to estimate the proportion of foreign-born persons with TB due reactivation TB and to describe characteristics of foreign-born persons with(More)
Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates (genotyping) can be used by public health programs to more readily identify tuberculosis (TB) transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service has offered M. tuberculosis genotyping for every culture-confirmed case in the United(More)
BACKGROUND Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has revealed 4 major phylogenetic lineages with differential distribution worldwide. It is not clear whether different lineages are associated with different sites of infection (eg, pulmonary tuberculosis versus extrapulmonary tuberculosis). We sought to determine whether M. tuberculosis lineage is(More)
BACKGROUND Acquired resistance to second-line drugs (SLDs) is a problem in treating patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis worldwide. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for acquired resistance (AR) to injectable SLDs (INJ SLDs) and fluoroquinolones in the US National tuberculosis Surveillance System, 1993-2008. METHODS We(More)
The secreted Mycobacterium tuberculosis 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP)10 is a potent T cell Ag that is recognized by a high percentage of persons infected with M. tuberculosis. We determined the molecular basis for this widespread recognition by identifying and characterizing a 15-mer peptide, CFP10(71-85), that elicited IFN-gamma production and CTL(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are attractive alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the inability to definitively confirm the presence of most M. tuberculosis infections hampers assessment of IGRA accuracy. Although IGRAs are primarily indicated for the detection of(More)
Background: Currently in the U.S. it is recommended that tuberculosis screening and treatment programs be targeted at high-risk populations. While a strategy of targeted testing and treatment of persons most likely to develop tuberculosis is attractive, it is uncertain how best to accomplish this goal. In this study we seek to identify geographical areas(More)
To determine the proportion of reported tuberculosis (TB) cases due to recent transmission in the United States, we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine culture-positive TB cases with complete genotype results (spoligotyping and 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing) reported during January(More)