Patrick McNamara

Learn More
The amount of time asleep varies greatly in mammals, from 3 h in the donkey to 20 h in the armadillo. Previous comparative studies have suggested several functional explanations for interspecific variation in both the total time spent asleep and in rapid-eye movement (REM) or "quiet" (non-REM) sleep. In support of specific functional benefits of sleep,(More)
CONTEXT Excessive consumption of alcohol is a major problem in the United States and abroad. Despite many years of study, it is unclear why some individuals drink alcohol excessively while others do not. It has been postulated that either lower or greater acute responses to alcohol, or both, depending on the limb of the breath alcohol concentration curve,(More)
This MiniReview updates and expands the MiniReview of aluminium toxicokinetics by Wilhelm et al. published by this journal in 1990. The use of 26Al, analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry, now enables determination of Al toxicokinetics under physiological conditions. There is concern about aluminium in drinking water. The common sources of aluminium for(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which nitrofurantoin is transferred into human milk. DESIGN Prospective, single-dose pharmacokinetic study. SETTING University-affiliated clinical research center. PATIENTS Four healthy lactating women 8-26 weeks postpartum. INTERVENTION All subjects received a single, oral, 100-mg dose of nitrofurantoin(More)
The purpose of these studies was to further elucidate the active mammary epithelial transport processes for the organic cation cimetidine and the organic anion nitrofurantoin and to determine which of the identified rat organic anion (rOATs) and organic cation (rOCTs) transporters may be responsible for transport of these drugs into milk. Milk-to-serum(More)
In addition to differences in the pharmacodynamic response in the infant, the dose and the pharmacokinetic processes acting upon that dose principally determine the efficacy and/or safety of a therapeutic or inadvertent exposure. At a given dose, significant differences in therapeutic efficacy and toxicant susceptibility exist between the newborn and adult.(More)
In this study, the impact of tertiary-treated municipal wastewater on the quantity of several antibiotic resistance determinants in Duluth-Superior Harbor was investigated by collecting surface water and sediment samples from 13 locations in Duluth-Superior Harbor, the St. Louis River, and Lake Superior. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to target three(More)
Dramatic developmental changes in the physiological and biochemical processes that govern drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics occur during the first year of life. These changes may have significant consequences for the way infants respond to and deal with drugs. The ontogenesis of systemic clearance mechanisms is probably the most critical(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness and safety of moderate whole-body hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy born in hospitals with and without newborn intensive care facilities or complicated hypothermia equipment. DESIGN Multicenter, international, randomized controlled trial. SETTING Neonatal intensive care units in(More)
Transporter-mediated processes in the lactating mammary gland may explain the significant accumulation of certain drugs in breast milk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential candidate drug transport proteins involved in drug accumulation in milk. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were developed to determine(More)