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The amount of time asleep varies greatly in mammals, from 3 h in the donkey to 20 h in the armadillo. Previous comparative studies have suggested several functional explanations for interspecific variation in both the total time spent asleep and in rapid-eye movement (REM) or "quiet" (non-REM) sleep. In support of specific functional benefits of sleep,(More)
BACKGROUND Propensity for alcohol misuse may be linked to an individuals' response to alcohol. This study examined the role of alcohol response phenotypes to future drinking problems. METHODS One hundred four young heavy social drinkers participated in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory alcohol challenge study with 6-year(More)
BACKGROUND Pragmatic communication abilities may depend on intact frontal lobe systems. Independent evidence suggests that some persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired on measures of frontal lobe function. HYPOTHESIS We therefore hypothesized in Study 1 that pragmatic communication skills would be impaired in some persons with PD and would be(More)
BACKGROUND Counterfactuals are mental representations of alternatives to past events. Recent research has shown them to be important for other cognitive processes, such as planning, causal reasoning, problem solving, and decision making-all processes independently linked to the frontal lobes. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that counterfactual thinking(More)
The objectives of our study were to estimate the percentage of aluminum (Al) that enters the brain, the half-life of brain Al, and the ability of an Al chelator to reduce brain Al. Rats received an iv infusion of Al transferrin, the primary Al species in plasma, or Al citrate, the predominant small molecular weight Al species in plasma. The infusion(More)
Transporter-mediated processes in the lactating mammary gland may explain the significant accumulation of certain drugs in breast milk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential candidate drug transport proteins involved in drug accumulation in milk. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were developed to determine(More)
OBJECTIVE To study clinical correlates of religiosity in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS Measures of life goals, religiosity, mood, and neuropsychologic function were assessed in 22 persons with mid-stage PD and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Levodopa dose equivalents (LDE) were also computed for the patients. RESULTS Relative to other major life(More)
The organic anion transporting polypeptide 4c1 (Oatp4c1) was previously identified as a novel uptake transporter predominantly expressed at the basolateral membrane in the rat kidney proximal tubules. Its functional role was suggested to be a vectorial transport partner of an apically-expressed efflux transporter for the efficient translocation of(More)
We previously reported an ontogeny model of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) activity that predicts in vivo P450 elimination from in vitro intrinsic clearance. The purpose of this study was to conduct investigations into key assumptions of the P450 ontogeny model using the developing rat model system. We used two developmentally dissimilar enzymes, CYP2E1 and(More)