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BACKGROUND Propensity for alcohol misuse may be linked to an individuals' response to alcohol. This study examined the role of alcohol response phenotypes to future drinking problems. METHODS One hundred four young heavy social drinkers participated in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory alcohol challenge study with 6-year(More)
CONTEXT Excessive consumption of alcohol is a major problem in the United States and abroad. Despite many years of study, it is unclear why some individuals drink alcohol excessively while others do not. It has been postulated that either lower or greater acute responses to alcohol, or both, depending on the limb of the breath alcohol concentration curve,(More)
Alcohol is a known exogenous modulator of negative affect (anxiety, tension) in both animals and humans. It has been proposed that the anxiolytic effects of alcohol are mediated via the amygdala, an area critical to fear perception and responding. However, little is known about the acute effects of alcohol on amygdala reactivity to threatening information(More)
A strong link exists between cigarette smoking and alcohol use, which may be explained by the experimental observation that alcohol ingestion promotes cigarette craving and precipitates smoking. At the neuroanatomic level, it is unclear where and how alcohol exerts these effects, although the process likely involves the ventral striatum given its function(More)
BACKGROUND The main neurobiological theories of the development of addiction, including tolerance, sensitization, incentive-sensitization, and allostasis, have not been tested in longitudinal human alcohol response research. To address this issue, we conducted the first controlled prospective investigation of subjective and neuroendocrine responses to(More)
INTRODUCTION Alcohol has been shown to increase smoking urges and smoking behavior. However, alcohol's effects on specific components of smoking behavior for nicotine versus non-nicotine factors and potential sex differences in this response have not been investigated. METHODS Forty-two young male and female non-dependent, heavy social drinking smokers(More)
—Variation in transistor characteristics is increasing as CMOS transistors are scaled to nanometer feature sizes. This increase in transistor variability poses a serious challenge to the cost-effective utilization of scaled technologies. Meeting this challenge requires comprehensive and efficient approaches for variability characterization, minimization,(More)
This paper presents a new statistical methodology to simulate the effect of both inter-die and intra-die variation on the electrical performance of analog integrated circuits. The main feature of this methodology is that it accounts for device mismatch by using a number of variables that is asymptotically constant in the limit of perfectly matching devices,(More)
This study investigated how acute alcohol intake affects contrast processing mediated by inferred magnocellular (MC) and parvocellular (PC) pathways. Achromatic contrast discrimination thresholds were measured in 16 young healthy participants using a steady-pedestal, pulsed-pedestal or pedestal-Δ-pedestal paradigm designed to favor the inferred MC or the PC(More)