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The kinetics of ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin, was studied in six healthy subjects who received bolus injections of 150, 500, and 1,500 mg intravenously in a random crossover fashion. Although total drug concentration time profiles after all doses could be described by biexponential equation, simple compartment analysis was inappropriate because a(More)
The amount of time asleep varies greatly in mammals, from 3 h in the donkey to 20 h in the armadillo. Previous comparative studies have suggested several functional explanations for interspecific variation in both the total time spent asleep and in rapid-eye movement (REM) or "quiet" (non-REM) sleep. In support of specific functional benefits of sleep,(More)
Most of the existing anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents enter the central nervous system (CNS) inefficiently and thus may allow slow viral replication in the brain. This may provide a sanctuary for the virus in the CNS and contribute to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex. This study evaluates a prodrug approach to(More)
BACKGROUND Propensity for alcohol misuse may be linked to an individuals' response to alcohol. This study examined the role of alcohol response phenotypes to future drinking problems. METHODS One hundred four young heavy social drinkers participated in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory alcohol challenge study with 6-year(More)
This MiniReview updates and expands the MiniReview of aluminium toxicokinetics by Wilhelm et al. published by this journal in 1990. The use of 26Al, analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry, now enables determination of Al toxicokinetics under physiological conditions. There is concern about aluminium in drinking water. The common sources of aluminium for(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness and safety of moderate whole-body hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy born in hospitals with and without newborn intensive care facilities or complicated hypothermia equipment. DESIGN Multicenter, international, randomized controlled trial. SETTING Neonatal intensive care units in(More)
In this study, the impact of tertiary-treated municipal wastewater on the quantity of several antibiotic resistance determinants in Duluth-Superior Harbor was investigated by collecting surface water and sediment samples from 13 locations in Duluth-Superior Harbor, the St. Louis River, and Lake Superior. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to target three(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which nitrofurantoin is transferred into human milk. DESIGN Prospective, single-dose pharmacokinetic study. SETTING University-affiliated clinical research center. PATIENTS Four healthy lactating women 8-26 weeks postpartum. INTERVENTION All subjects received a single, oral, 100-mg dose of nitrofurantoin(More)
Most xenobiotics are transferred from blood into breast milk by passive diffusion. However, an active transport mechanism has been speculated for cimetidine, and the purpose of this study was to characterize cimetidine transfer into human milk. Twelve healthy lactating volunteers received single oral doses of 100, 600, and 1200 mg cimetidine in a(More)