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The amount of time asleep varies greatly in mammals, from 3 h in the donkey to 20 h in the armadillo. Previous comparative studies have suggested several functional explanations for interspecific variation in both the total time spent asleep and in rapid-eye movement (REM) or "quiet" (non-REM) sleep. In support of specific functional benefits of sleep,(More)
This MiniReview updates and expands the MiniReview of aluminium toxicokinetics by Wilhelm et al. published by this journal in 1990. The use of 26Al, analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry, now enables determination of Al toxicokinetics under physiological conditions. There is concern about aluminium in drinking water. The common sources of aluminium for(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness and safety of moderate whole-body hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy born in hospitals with and without newborn intensive care facilities or complicated hypothermia equipment. DESIGN Multicenter, international, randomized controlled trial. SETTING Neonatal intensive care units in(More)
BACKGROUND Propensity for alcohol misuse may be linked to an individuals' response to alcohol. This study examined the role of alcohol response phenotypes to future drinking problems. METHODS One hundred four young heavy social drinkers participated in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory alcohol challenge study with 6-year(More)
Genetic knockout mice studies suggested ATP-binding cassette transporter family G member 2 (ABCG2)/Abcg2 translocates nitrofurantoin at the mammary-blood barrier, resulting in drug accumulation in milk. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of Abcg2 in nitrofurantoin accumulation in rat milk using(More)
OBJECTIVES Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is a potentially useful clinical tool in the neonatal setting. Our aim was to evaluate a new method of non-invasive continuous cardiac output (CO) measurement (NICOM™) based on the principle of bioreactance in neonates. METHODS In this prospective observational study, 10 neonates underwent 97 paired NICOM(More)
In addition to differences in the pharmacodynamic response in the infant, the dose and the pharmacokinetic processes acting upon that dose principally determine the efficacy and/or safety of a therapeutic or inadvertent exposure. At a given dose, significant differences in therapeutic efficacy and toxicant susceptibility exist between the newborn and adult.(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To determine the distribution of hydromorphone into breast milk and the potential exposure of the suckling infant, and whether the distribution of hydromorphone into milk can be predicted accurately by a passive diffusion model. DESIGN Single-dose, pharmacokinetic study. SETTING University clinical research unit. PATIENTS Eight(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which nitrofurantoin is transferred into human milk. DESIGN Prospective, single-dose pharmacokinetic study. SETTING University-affiliated clinical research center. PATIENTS Four healthy lactating women 8-26 weeks postpartum. INTERVENTION All subjects received a single, oral, 100-mg dose of nitrofurantoin(More)
In this study, the impact of tertiary-treated municipal wastewater on the quantity of several antibiotic resistance determinants in Duluth-Superior Harbor was investigated by collecting surface water and sediment samples from 13 locations in Duluth-Superior Harbor, the St. Louis River, and Lake Superior. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to target three(More)