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The Microbial Metabolites, Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Regulate Colonic Treg Cell Homeostasis
This study determined that short-chain fatty acids, gut microbiota–derived bacterial fermentation products, regulate the size and function of the colonic Treg pool and protect against colitis in a Ffar2-dependent manner in mice, revealing that a class of abundant microbial metabolites underlies adaptive immune microbiota coadaptation and promotes colonic homeostasis and health.
Regulation of life span by the gut microbiota in the short-lived African turquoise killifish
It is demonstrated that the natural microbial gut community of young individuals can causally induce long-lasting beneficial systemic effects that lead to life span extension in a vertebrate model.
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage
- G. Chan, Elizabeth R. Bivins-Smith, M. Smith, Patrick M. Smith, A. Yurochko
- BiologyThe Journal of Immunology
- 1 July 2008
Overall, the results identify that the HCMV-infected monocyte transcriptome displayed a unique M1/M2 polarization signature that was skewed toward the classical M1 activation phenotype.
Dendritic Cell IL-23 and IL-1 Production in Response to Schistosome Eggs Induces Th17 Cells in a Mouse Strain Prone to Severe Immunopathology1
- M. Shainheit, Patrick M. Smith, L. Bazzone, Andrew C. Wang, L. Rutitzky, M. Stadecker
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of Immunology
- 15 December 2008
IL-23 and IL-1 are identified as critical host factors that drive IL-17 production and it is suggested that parasite recognition followed by a genetically determined innate proinflammatory response induces the development of Th17 cells and thus controls the outcome of immunopathology in schistosomiasis.
Control of acute cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection : T cell-mediated viral clearance is dependent upon interferon-γ (IFN-γ)
Cutaneous HSV infection of the footpad tissue of C57BL/6 (B6) mice provides a model to determine the relative contribution of each T cell subset during the important early phase of the response to infection, and it was found that the neutralization of IFN-γ in vivo diminished the ability of mice to clear infectious HSV from the skin, and treatment with anti-IFN-β in vivo ablated the able of transferred T cells to mediate recovery.
Case History of Landslide Movement during the Northridge Earthquake
We document a case history of Northridge earthquake induced movement of a coherent landslide mass comprised principally of weathered, previously sheared siltstone. Information on the residual shear…
The Pathogenic Th17 Cell Response to Major Schistosome Egg Antigen Is Sequentially Dependent on IL-23 and IL-1β
The results demonstrate that the IL-23–IL-1– IL-17 axis has a central role in the development of severe schistosome egg-induced immunopathology.
T‐bet protects against exacerbation of schistosome egg‐induced immunopathology by regulating Th17‐mediated inflammation
- L. Rutitzky, Patrick M. Smith, M. Stadecker
- Biology, MedicineEuropean journal of immunology
- 1 September 2009
It is reported that immunization with soluble egg Ag in CFA caused a significantly greater enhancement of egg‐induced hepatic immunopathology in T‐bet−/− mice compared with WT controls, and analysis of their granulomas disclosed a higher proportion of activated DC and CD4+ T cells, as well as a marked influx of neutrophils.
The Gut Microbiota and Mucosal T Cells
This review focuses on the gut microbiota's influence on the development and function of mucosal T cells subsets, specifically intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria CD4 T cells.
HCMV activates PI(3)K in monocytes and promotes monocyte motility and transendothelial migration in a PI(3)K‐dependent manner
- M. Smith, G. L. Bentz, Patrick M. Smith, Elizabeth R. Bivins, A. Yurochko
- BiologyJournal of leukocyte biology
- 1 July 2004
It is shown that HCMV up‐regulates phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphate kinase [PI(3)K] activity and that this increased PI(2)K activity is essential for infected monocyte‐transendothelial migration, and that these activated monocytes express a number of inflammatory mediators via PI( 3)K signaling.