Patrick M. Lucas

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Food-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally considered to be non-toxic and non-pathogenic. Some species of LAB, however, can produce biogenic amines (BAs). BAs are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds, mainly formed through decarboxylation of amino acids. BAs are present in a wide range of foods, including dairy products, and can occasionally(More)
Histamine production from histidine in fermented food products by lactic acid bacteria results in food spoilage and is harmful to consumers. We have isolated a histamine-producing lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus hilgardii strain IOEB 0006, which could retain or lose the ability to produce histamine depending on culture conditions. The hdcA gene, coding(More)
Bacterial genes of tyrosine decarboxylases were recently identified. Here we continued the sequencing of the tyrosine decarboxylase locus of Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 and determined a total of 7979 bp. The sequence contained four complete genes encoding a tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, the tyrosine decarboxylase, a probable tyrosine permease and a Na+/H+(More)
Oenococcus oeni is the acidophilic lactic acid bacterial species most frequently associated with malolactic fermentation of wine. Since the description of the species (formerly Leuconostoc oenos), characterization of indigenous strains and industrially produced cultures by diverse typing methods has led to divergent conclusions concerning the genetic(More)
A collection of 810 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from wine and cider was screened for potential biogenic amine (BA) producers by combining molecular and phenotypic approaches. A newly developed multiplex PCR method allowed for the simultaneous detection of four genes involved in the production of histamine (histidine decarboxylase, hdc),(More)
Some lactic acid bacteria contain a tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) which converts tyrosine to tyramine, a biogenic amine frequently encountered in fermented food and wine. Purification and microsequencing of the TDC of Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 allowed us to determine a partial sequence of the TDC gene encoding 264 amino acids of the enzyme. Analysis of(More)
Lactic acid bacteria contribute to wine transformation during malolactic fermentation. They generally improve the sensorial properties of wine, but some strains produce histamine, a toxic substance that causes health issues. Histamine-producing strains belong to species of the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. All carry an hdcA gene coding(More)
In lactic acid bacteria (LAB), amino acids and their derivatives may be converted into amine-containing compounds designated biogenic amines, in pathways providing metabolic energy and/or acid resistance to the bacteria. In a previous study, a pathway converting tyrosine to tyramine was detected in Lactobacillus brevis and a fragment of a gene possibly(More)
AIMS Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 is able to produce both tyramine and putrescine via tyrosine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase enzymes, respectively, when cultured on synthetic media. The aims of this study were to assess the expression of L. brevis IOEB 9809 tdc and aguA1 genes, during wine fermentation and to evaluate the effect of substrate(More)
The complex microbial ecosystem of grape must and wine harbours a wide diversity of yeast species. Specific oligonucleotide primers for real-time quantitative PCR(QPCR) were designed to analyse several important non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora spp.)(More)