Patrick M. Kennedy

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Human motivation is sensitive to value—to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people’s motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment (‘outcome feedback’). In this paper, we argue and(More)
The triceps surae muscle group, consisting of the mono-articular soleus (SOL) and bi-articular gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles, primarily generates plantar flexor torque. Since the GAS muscle crosses the knee joint, flexion of the knee reduces the length of this muscle, thus limiting its contribution to torque output. However, it is not clearly understood how(More)
PURPOSE Bone regeneration through distraction osteogenesis (DO) is promising but remarkably slow. To accelerate it, autologous mesenchymal stem cells have been directly injected to the distraction site in a few recent studies. Compared to direct injection, a scaffold-based method can provide earlier cell delivery with potentially better controlled cell(More)
I. Six closely shorn sheep were given brome grass (Bromus inermis) pellets at the rate of 59 or 98 g dry matter (DM)/h and maintained at ambient temperatures of 2-5' and 22-25' for 35 d. Measurements of digestion , rate of passage of digesta, and nitrogen transformations were made during the last 13 d of temperature exposure. 2. Cold exposure at the lower(More)
1. Three diets of barley-canola-seed (Brassica campestris), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or chopped brome-grass (Bromus inermis) were given at intervals of 3 h to closely-shorn Suffolk wethers held at a temperature of 1-5 degree (cold) or 22-24 degree (warm). Apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM) and nitrogen was reduced by 0.08-0.05 and 0.04 units(More)
The voluntary intake (VI) of separated leaf and stem fractions of a grass and legume (Panicum maximum and Lablab purpureus respectively) was determined using Hereford steers fistulated at the rumen and oesophagus. VI of leaf fractions was higher than that of the stem fraction (8.23 v. 3.67 kg/d, P less than 0.001) while that for the legume diets was higher(More)
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