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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which lead to pathological and clinical abnormalities. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that inflammation is the fundamental process contributing to neuron(More)
The role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in Parkinson's disease is not completely understood. In this study, using mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that both pretreatment and post-treatment of rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures with interleukin (IL)-10, a natural immune modulator, reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DA neurotoxicity.(More)
Recent studies have shown that morphine modulates the function of glia cells through both opioid receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which morphine regulates neuronal disorders through the alteration of microglia activity remains unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson disease (PD), a chronic neurodegenerative disease, has been proposed to be a multifactorial disorder resulting from a combination of environmental mechanisms (chemical, infectious, and traumatic), aging, and genetic deficits. Microglial activation is important in the pathogenesis of PD. OBJECTIVES We investigated dopaminergic (DA)(More)
The passive transfer of contact sensitivity (CS) by immune cells can be inhibited with an antigen-specific T suppressor factor. This factor is composed of two subfactors: an antigen-specific subfactor made by an Ly1+ cell (PC1-F) and a antigen nonspecific subfactor made by an Ly2+ T cell (TNBSA-F). The suppressive activity of the complete factor can be(More)
Memantine shows clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Most in vivo and in vitro studies attribute the neuroprotective effects of memantine to the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor on neurons. However, it cannot be excluded that mechanisms other than NMDA receptor blockade may contribute to(More)
Significant evidence has now been accumulated that microglial cells play a central role in the degeneration of DA neurons in animal models of PD. The oxidative stress response by microglial cells, most notably the activity of the enzyme NADPH oxidase, appears to play a central role in the pathology of PD. This oxidative stress response occurs in microglia(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although current therapy can control symptoms of this disorder, there is no effective therapy available to halt its progression. Recently, neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important contributor(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of inflammation resulting in dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) are complex and incompletely understood. Microglia-mediated inflammation has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for progressive neurodegeneration. METHODS Mesencephalic(More)
Chronic inflammation mediated by microglial cells is the fundamental process contributing to the death of dopamine (DA)-producing neurons in the brain. Production of inflammatory products by these microglial cells characterizes the slow destructive process in Parkinson's disease (PD). The activation of microglial cells and the generation of pro-inflammatory(More)