Patrick M. Flood

Learn More
TGF-beta1 is one of the most potent endogenous immune modulators of inflammation. The molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB has been well-studied; however, the potential effects of TGF-beta1 on other proinflammatory signaling pathways is less clear. In this study, using the(More)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which lead to pathological and clinical abnormalities. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that inflammation is the fundamental process contributing to neuron(More)
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, has recently been implicated in the modulation of pain. Our group demonstrated that human genetic variants of COMT are predictive for the development of Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMJD) and are associated with heightened experimental pain sensitivity [Diatchenko, L,(More)
Activation of the beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) located on macrophages has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and cytokine production induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. Here, we show that activation of the beta(2)AR in the absence of pro-inflammatory stimuli produced up(More)
The Ly-6 alloantigens have been shown to play a critical role in T lymphocyte activation. To isolate a Ly-6 cDNA, synthetic oligonucleotides, based on the partial amino acid sequence of purified Ly-6E.1 protein, were used to probe a cDNA library. The synthetic oligonucleotides or the isolated cDNA detected a 1.1-kb RNA species. Sequence analysis of the cDNA(More)
The role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in Parkinson's disease is not completely understood. In this study, using mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that both pretreatment and post-treatment of rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures with interleukin (IL)-10, a natural immune modulator, reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DA neurotoxicity.(More)
Memantine shows clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Most in vivo and in vitro studies attribute the neuroprotective effects of memantine to the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor on neurons. However, it cannot be excluded that mechanisms other than NMDA receptor blockade may contribute to(More)
Recent studies have shown that morphine modulates the function of glia cells through both opioid receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which morphine regulates neuronal disorders through the alteration of microglia activity remains unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that(More)
Ly-6A is a murine antigen which is implicated in lymphocyte activation and may be involved in activation of hematopoietic stem cells. Antibody cross-linking studies and antisense experiments have suggested that Ly-6A is a lymphocyte coactivation molecule. To better understand the function of Ly-6A, we used gene targeting to produce Ly-6A null mice which are(More)
Keratinocytes produce an IL-1 like factor termed epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF). In this study, we show that ETAF and IL-1 are identical by the following criteria: Both normal and malignant human keratinocytes contain mRNAs identical to monocytic IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA, as determined by an S1 nuclease protection assay; and(More)