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In 2000, the Cohn-Kanade (CK) database was released for the purpose of promoting research into automatically detecting individual facial expressions. Since then, the CK database has become one of the most widely used test-beds for algorithm development and evaluation. During this period , three limitations have become apparent: 1) While AU codes are well(More)
— A major factor hindering the deployment of a fully functional automatic facial expression detection system is the lack of representative data. A solution to this is to narrow the context of the target application, so enough data is available to build robust models so high performance can be gained. Automatic pain detection from a patient's face represents(More)
— In automatic facial expression detection, very accurate registration is desired which can be achieved via a deformable model approach where a dense mesh of 60-70 points on the face is used, such as an active appearance model (AAM). However, for applications where manually labeling frames is prohibitive, AAMs do not work well as they do not generalize well(More)
—Person re-identification involves recognising individuals in different locations across a network of cameras and is a challenging task due to a large number of varying factors such as pose (both subject and camera) and ambient lighting conditions. Existing databases do not adequately capture these variations, making evaluations of proposed techniques(More)
Automatically recognizing pain from video is a very useful application as it has the potential to alert carers to patients that are in discomfort who would otherwise not be able to communicate such emotion (i.e young children, patients in postoperative care etc.). In previous work [1], a "pain-no pain" system was developed which used an AAM-SVM approach to(More)
In a clinical setting, pain is reported either through patient self-report or via an observer. Such measures are problematic as they are: 1) subjective, and 2) give no specific timing information. Coding pain as a series of facial action units (AUs) can avoid these issues as it can be used to gain an objective measure of pain on a frame-by-frame basis.(More)
For facial expression recognition systems to be applicable in the real world, they need to be able to detect and track a previously unseen person's face and its facial movements accurately in realistic environments. A highly plausible solution involves performing a "dense" form of alignment, where 60-70 fiducial facial points are tracked with high accuracy.(More)
In this paper, we describe a method to represent and discover adversarial group behavior in a continuous domain. In comparison to other types of behavior, adversarial behavior is heavily structured as the location of a player (or agent) is dependent both on their teammates and adversaries , in addition to the tactics or strategies of the team. We present a(More)
Recently, vision-based systems have been deployed in professional sports to track the ball and players to enhance analysis of matches. Due to their unobtrusive nature, vision-based approaches are preferred to wearable sensors (e.g. GPS or RFID sensors) as it does not require players or balls to be instrumented prior to matches. Unfortunately, in continuous(More)