Learn More
Using an expression cloning strategy that relies on a functional assay, we have cloned a novel Xenopus homeobox-containing gene, Siamois. Embryos injected in a ventral-vegetal blastomere with as little as 5 pg of Siamois mRNA develop a complete secondary axis, but the progeny of the injected cells do not participate in the secondary axis formation. In(More)
The first chordates appear in the fossil record at the time of the Cambrian explosion, nearly 550 million years ago. The modern ascidian tadpole represents a plausible approximation to these ancestral chordates. To illuminate the origins of chordate and vertebrates, we generated a draft of the protein-coding portion of the genome of the most studied(More)
The sensory vesicle of ascidians is thought to be homologous to the vertebrate forebrain and midbrain (Development 125 (1998) 1113). Here we report the isolation of two sensory vesicle markers in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, which are homologs of vertebrate otx and gsx homeobox genes. By using these markers to analyze the induction of anterior neural(More)
With little more than 330 cells, two thirds within the sensory vesicle, the CNS of the tadpole larva of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis provides us with a chordate nervous system in miniature. Neurulation, neurogenesis and its genetic bases, as well as the gene expression territories of this tiny constituency of cells all follow a chordate plan, giving rise(More)
Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly(More)
The choice/no-choice method provides a means of obtaining unbiased estimates of the performance characteristics of strategies. The three experiments in the study illustrate the method's usefulness for testing predictions of alternative models of strategy choice. The experiments focused on 20- and 70-year-olds' choices among mental calculation, use of a(More)
Ascidians are invertebrate chordates with a larval body plan similar to that of vertebrates. The ascidian larval CNS is divided along the anteroposterior axis into sensory vesicle, neck, visceral ganglion and tail nerve cord. The anterior part of the sensory vesicle comes from the a-line animal blastomeres, whereas the remaining CNS is largely derived from(More)
Siamois, a Xenopus zygotic homeobox gene with strong dorsalising activity, is expressed in the dorsal-vegetal organiser known as the Nieuwkoop centre. We show that, in contrast to Spemann organiser genes such as goosecoid, chordin and noggin, Siamois gene expression is not induced following overexpression of mesoderm inducers in ectodermal (animal cap)(More)
This study reports a longitudinal investigation of French 2nd graders' acquisition of single-digit multiplication skill. Speed, accuracy, and strategy use were assessed 3 times within the year when children learned multiplication. The data showed that improvements in speed and accuracy that generally accompany learning can reflect at least 4 types of(More)