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Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly(More)
Neural induction constitutes the first step in the generation of the vertebrate nervous system from embryonic ectoderm. Work with Xenopus ectodermal explants has suggested that epidermis is induced by BMP signals, whereas neural fates arise by default following BMP inhibition. In amniotes and ascidians, however, BMP inhibition does not appear to be(More)
The choice/no-choice method provides a means of obtaining unbiased estimates of the performance characteristics of strategies. The three experiments in the study illustrate the method's usefulness for testing predictions of alternative models of strategy choice. The experiments focused on 20- and 70-year-olds' choices among mental calculation, use of a(More)
Participants were asked to verify if complex additions were smaller than 100 or not. Two hundred and forty arithmetic problems were presented, with half the problems being small-split problems (i.e. proposed sums were 2 or 5% away from 100) and half being large-split problems (i.e. proposed sums were 10 or 15% away from 100). Behavioral and ERPs data(More)
With little more than 330 cells, two thirds within the sensory vesicle, the CNS of the tadpole larva of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis provides us with a chordate nervous system in miniature. Neurulation, neurogenesis and its genetic bases, as well as the gene expression territories of this tiny constituency of cells all follow a chordate plan, giving rise(More)
In the present study, we examined the conditions that favor the plausibility judgment strategy over the retrieval strategy when we verify some statements. In particular, we examined the effect of odd-even status of numbers on subjects' verification of single-digit arithmetic problems. In Experiment 1, we explored how factors such as problem difficulty and(More)
BACKGROUND In Xenopus, the endoderm germ layer is derived from the vegetal blastomeres of cleavage-stage embryos. Cell transplantation experiments have revealed that the endodermal fate becomes gradually fixed during the late blastula stages. Sox17alpha, Mix.1, Mixer and GATA-4 encode vegetal zygotic transcription factors with endoderm-inducing activity.(More)
In chordates, formation of neural tissue from ectodermal cells requires an induction. The molecular nature of the inducer remains controversial in vertebrates. Here, using the early neural marker Otx as an entry point, we dissected the neural induction pathway in the simple embryos of Ciona intestinalis. We first isolated the regulatory element driving Otx(More)
Though age-related decrease in information-processing capacities is hypothesized to be a prominent cause of behavioral slowing, it has been scarcely systematically studied in goal-directed motor tasks. The present study investigated how the decrease in information processing affects the sensorimotor processes underlying the control of a discrete Fitts’(More)
Younger and older participants were asked to indicate if 240 complex two-digit addition problems were smaller than 100 or not. Half of the problems were small-split problems (i.e., the proposed sums were 2% or 5% away from 100; e.g., 53 + 49) and half were large-split problems (i.e., proposed sums were 10% or 15% away from 100; 46 + 39). Behavioral and(More)