Patrick Lemaire

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The first chordates appear in the fossil record at the time of the Cambrian explosion, nearly 550 million years ago. The modern ascidian tadpole represents a plausible approximation to these ancestral chordates. To illuminate the origins of chordate and vertebrates, we generated a draft of the protein-coding portion of the genome of the most studied(More)
Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly(More)
Using an expression cloning strategy that relies on a functional assay, we have cloned a novel Xenopus homeobox-containing gene, Siamois. Embryos injected in a ventral-vegetal blastomere with as little as 5 pg of Siamois mRNA develop a complete secondary axis, but the progeny of the injected cells do not participate in the secondary axis formation. In(More)
In chordates, formation of neural tissue from ectodermal cells requires an induction. The molecular nature of the inducer remains controversial in vertebrates. Here, using the early neural marker Otx as an entry point, we dissected the neural induction pathway in the simple embryos of Ciona intestinalis. We first isolated the regulatory element driving Otx(More)
The sensory vesicle of ascidians is thought to be homologous to the vertebrate forebrain and midbrain (Development 125 (1998) 1113). Here we report the isolation of two sensory vesicle markers in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, which are homologs of vertebrate otx and gsx homeobox genes. By using these markers to analyze the induction of anterior neural(More)
BACKGROUND In Xenopus, the endoderm germ layer is derived from the vegetal blastomeres of cleavage-stage embryos. Cell transplantation experiments have revealed that the endodermal fate becomes gradually fixed during the late blastula stages. Sox17alpha, Mix.1, Mixer and GATA-4 encode vegetal zygotic transcription factors with endoderm-inducing activity.(More)
Neural induction constitutes the first step in the generation of the vertebrate nervous system from embryonic ectoderm. Work with Xenopus ectodermal explants has suggested that epidermis is induced by BMP signals, whereas neural fates arise by default following BMP inhibition. In amniotes and ascidians, however, BMP inhibition does not appear to be(More)
This study reports a longitudinal investigation of French 2nd graders' acquisition of single-digit multiplication skill. Speed, accuracy, and strategy use were assessed 3 times within the year when children learned multiplication. The data showed that improvements in speed and accuracy that generally accompany learning can reflect at least 4 types of(More)
The choice/no-choice method provides a means of obtaining unbiased estimates of the performance characteristics of strategies. The three experiments in the study illustrate the method's usefulness for testing predictions of alternative models of strategy choice. The experiments focused on 20- and 70-year-olds' choices among mental calculation, use of a(More)
The draft genome sequence of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, along with associated gene models, has been a valuable research resource. However, recently accumulated expressed sequence tag (EST)/cDNA data have revealed numerous inconsistencies with the gene models due in part to intrinsic limitations in gene prediction programs and in part to the fragmented(More)