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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are proposed to initiate cancer and propagate metastasis. Breast CSCs identified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity are highly tumorigenic in xenograft models. However, in patient breast tumor immunohistological studies, where CSCs are identified by expression of ALDH isoform ALDH1A1, CSC prevalence is not correlative with(More)
Recent evidence suggests that enhanced aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is a hallmark of cancer stem cells (CSC) measurable by the aldefluor assay. ALDH1A1, one of 19 ALDH isoforms expressed in humans, was generally believed to be responsible for the ALDH activity of CSCs. More recently, experiments with murine hematopoietic stem cells, murine(More)
Reovirus, a potential cancer therapy, replicates more efficiently in Ras-transformed cells than in non-transformed cells. It was presumed that increased translation was the mechanistic basis of reovirus oncolysis. Analyses of each step of the reovirus life cycle now show that cellular processes deregulated by Ras transformation promote not one but three(More)
Cellular stress and DNA damage up-regulate and activate p53, fundamental for cell cycle control, senescence, DNA repair and apoptosis. The specific mechanism(s) that determine whether p53-dependent cell cycle arrest or p53-dependent apoptosis prevails in response to specific DNA damage are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated two types of DNA(More)
Recent evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in cancer, as these cells possess enhanced tumor-forming capabilities and are resistant to current anticancer therapies. Hence, novel cancer therapies will need to be tested for both tumor regression and CSC targeting. Herein we show that oncolytic reovirus that induces regression(More)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can replicate in malignant cells more efficiently than in normal cells. Although the selective replication appears to be caused by defects in the interferon (IFN) system in malignant cells, the mechanisms which render these cells less responsive to IFN remain poorly understood. Here we present evidence that an activated(More)
Reovirus is the first naturally occurring human virus reported to exploit activated Ras signaling in the host cell for infection, and is currently undergoing clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic. Recent evidence suggests that Ras transformation promotes three reoviral replication steps during the first round of infection: uncoating of the incoming(More)
This article overviews the research on the complex relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development and the important implications of this relationship for bilingual education. Recent studies are discussed that examine the cognitive development in bilingual children with regard to metalinguistic awareness, concept formation, and analogical(More)