Patrick L. Mcgeer

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We detected large numbers of HLA-DR-positive reactive microglia (macrophages), along with Lewy bodies and free melanin, in the substantia nigra of all cases studied with Parkinson's disease (5) and parkinsonism with dementia (PD) (5). We found similar, but less extensive, pathology in the substantia nigra of six of nine cases of dementia of the Alzheimer(More)
Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical stimulants of inflammation. Likewise, in the AD brain damaged(More)
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra are particularly vulnerable to oxidative and inflammatory attack. Such processes may play a crucial role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). Since glia are the main generators of these processes, the possibility that PD may be caused by glial dysfunction needs to be considered. This review concentrates on(More)
Cultured brain cells are capable of generating many molecules associated with inflammatory and immune functions. They constitute the endogenous immune response system of brain. They include complement proteins and their regulators, inflammatory cytokines, acute phase reactants and many proteases and protease inhibitors. Most of the proteins are made by(More)
Expression of proteins associated with immune function was investigated immunohistochemically in postmortem brain and spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Reactive microglia/macrophages displaying high levels of leukocyte common antigen (LCA), the immunoglobulin receptor Fc gamma R1, lymphocyte function associated molecule-1(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by excessive deposition of the beta-amyloid peptide (beta-AP) in the central nervous system. Although several lines of evidence suggest that beta-AP is neurotoxic, a mechanism for beta-AP toxicity in AD brain remains unclear. In this paper we provide both direct in vitro evidence that beta-AP can bind and activate the(More)
Neuroinflammation is a characteristic of pathologically affected tissue in several neurodegenerative disorders. These changes can be observed in the brainstem and spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases and in mouse models of the disease. They include an accumulation of large numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, as well as small(More)
The immunohistochemical demonstration of reactive microglia and activated complement components suggests that chronic inflammation occurs in affected brain regions in Parkinson's disease (PD). Evidence from humans and monkeys exposed to MPTP indicates this inflammation may persist many years after the initial stimulus has disappeared. Chronic inflammation(More)
The relationship of microglia and astrocytes to deposits of beta-amyloid protein (BAP) was studied in Alzheimer's disease by immunohistochemistry. BAP was detected in forms varying from diffuse amorphous deposits to compact spherical masses. These latter corresponded in frequency and distribution to senile plaques revealed by Bielschowsky and thioflavine S(More)
Localization of beta-2 integrins in normal and Alzheimer disease temporal cortex was studied immunohistochemically. Resting microglia were found to express constitutively CD11a (LFA-1), CD11b (Mac-1, CR3), CD11c (P150, 95; CR4), and CD18 (beta-2). They were also found to express constitutively leukocyte common antigen and the immunoglobulin receptor Fc(More)