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Protein insertion into the bacterial inner membrane is facilitated by SecYEG or YidC. Although SecYEG most likely constitutes the major integration site, small membrane proteins have been shown to integrate via YidC. We show that YidC can also integrate multispanning membrane proteins such as mannitol permease or TatC, which had been considered to be(More)
What explains local variation in electoral manipulation in countries with ongoing internal conflict? The theory of election fraud developed in this article relies on the candidates' loyalty networks as the agents manipulating the electoral process. It predicts (i) that the relationship between violence and fraud follows an inverted U-shape and (ii) that(More)
Cotranslational protein targeting delivers proteins to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane or to the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The signal recognition particle (SRP) binds to signal sequences emerging from the ribosomal tunnel and targets the ribosome-nascent-chain complex (RNC) to the SRP receptor, termed FtsY in bacteria. FtsY interacts(More)
How countries transition from autocracy to democracy is a key question in both economics and political science. A number of recent studies have found a positive relationship between natural disasters and political liberalization, interpreting these correlations as support for theoretical models which posit that lowered opportunity costs for rebellion due to(More)
project at Princeton, we studied the drivers, nature, and consequences of transnational terrorist threats as well as UN responses to conflict and peacebuilding. Biographies of the research team and instructors can be found in Appendix 3. The project was undertaken at the suggestion of senior United Nations (UN) staff in the Policy and Best Practices Service(More)
How societies make the transition from autocracy to democracy and then on to functioning programmatic politics is a key concern of scholars in both economics and political science. A number of recent papers have studied the relationship between exogenous shocks – such as natural disasters – and governance as a way of testing how economic conditions affect(More)
An infrared radiometer system has been developed that can alert a pilot of an aircraft 2 to 9 minutes in advance of an encounter with clear air turbulence. The time between the warning and the clear air turbulence event varies with the flight altitude of the aircraft. In turbulence-free areas, the incidence of false alarms is found to be less than one in(More)
"Forward-looking" infrared measurements of water vapor from the C-141A Kuiper Airborne Observatory of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center show large, distinctly identifiable, signal anomalies from 4 to 10 minutes in advance of subsequent encounters with clear air turbulence (CAT). These anomalies are characteristically(More)