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Signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent protein targeting is a universally conserved process that delivers proteins to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane or to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in eukaryotes. Crucial during targeting is the transfer of the ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC) from SRP to the Sec translocon. In eukaryotes, this step is(More)
Gram negative bacteria possess a large variety of protein transport systems, by which proteins that are synthesised in the cytosol are exported to destinations in the cell envelope or entirely secreted into the extracellular environment. The inner membrane (IM) contains three major transport systems for the translocation and insertion of signal sequence(More)
Cotranslational protein targeting delivers proteins to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane or to the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The signal recognition particle (SRP) binds to signal sequences emerging from the ribosomal tunnel and targets the ribosome-nascent-chain complex (RNC) to the SRP receptor, termed FtsY in bacteria. FtsY interacts(More)
Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) is a 55-kDa protein that functions in vesicular membrane transport to recycle Rab GTPases. We have now determined the crystal structure of bovine alpha-GDI at ultra-high resolution (1.04 A). Refinement at this resolution highlighted a region with high mobility of its main-chain residues. This corresponded to a(More)
Protein insertion into the bacterial inner membrane is facilitated by SecYEG or YidC. Although SecYEG most likely constitutes the major integration site, small membrane proteins have been shown to integrate via YidC. We show that YidC can also integrate multispanning membrane proteins such as mannitol permease or TatC, which had been considered to be(More)
Most membrane proteins are co-translationally inserted into the lipid bilayer via the universally conserved SecY complex and they access the lipid phase presumably via a lateral gate in SecY. In bacteria, the lipid transfer of membrane proteins from the SecY channel is assisted by the SecY-associated protein YidC, but details on the SecY-YidC interaction(More)
What explains local variation in electoral manipulation in countries with ongoing internal conflict? The theory of election fraud developed in this article relies on the candidates' loyalty networks as the agents manipulating the electoral process. It predicts (i) that the relationship between violence and fraud follows an inverted U-shape and (ii) that(More)
Infrared radiometric inference measurements of the mass of water vapor injected into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by a number of plains thunderstorms show an average threefold increase over the fair weather background mass of water vapor. These airborne measurements, made from the National Aeronautics and Space Admninistration Convair 990(More)
How societies make the transition from autocracy to democracy and then on to functioning programmatic politics is a key concern of scholars in both economics and political science. A number of recent papers have studied the relationship between exogenous shocks – such as natural disasters – and governance as a way of testing how economic conditions affect(More)