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The number of cores integrated onto a single die is expected to climb steadily in the foreseeable future. This move to many-core chips is driven by a need to optimize performance per watt. How best to connect these cores and how to program the resulting many-core processor, however, is an open research question. Designs vary from GPUs to cache-coherent(More)
NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic(More)
Optimal immune activation of naïve CD8 T cells requires signal 1 mediated by the T cell receptor, signal 2 mediated by co-stimulation and signal 3 provided by pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the potential for signal 3 cytokines to rescue anti-viral responses in functionally exhausted T cells has not been defined. We investigated the effect of using(More)
The ability of innate immune cells to sense and respond to impending danger varies by anatomical location. The liver is considered tolerogenic but is still capable of mounting a successful immune response to clear various infections. To understand whether hepatic immune cells tune their response to different infectious challenges, we probed mononuclear(More)
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in disparate degrees of tissue injury: the virus can either replicate without pathological consequences or trigger immune-mediated necroinflammatory liver damage. We investigated the potential for myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to suppress T cell-mediated immunopathology in this setting. Granulocytic(More)
Duplex ultrasound is used in many radiology departments as the first line of investigation for symptomatic deep venous thrombosis. Before changing the practice of our department from venography to duplex ultrasonography, we wanted to assess our ability to identify deep venous thrombosis on ultrasound. Thirty-eight patients were investigated for suspected(More)
Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality in the investigation of patients with symptoms related to the scrotum, and is pivotal to the diagnosis of suspected testicular malignancy. This retrospective study analysed the results of testicular ultrasound at a large teaching hospital over a five year period. We wished to examine the clinical consequences for(More)
The trophoblast cells are in direct contact with endometrial tissues throughout gestation, playing important early roles in implantation and placentation. The physiologic significance and the operating mechanisms involved in probable altered trophoblast functions following Chlamydia trachomatis infection were investigated to determine if C. trachomatis(More)
NK cells are important antiviral effectors, highly enriched in the liver, with the potential to regulate immunopathogenesis in persistent viral infections. Here we examined whether changes in the NK pool are induced when patients with eAg-positive CHB are 'primed' with PegIFNα and importantly, whether these changes are sustained or further modulated(More)
Natural killer cells (NK) are highly enriched in the human liver, where they can regulate immunity and immunopathology. We probed them for a liver-resident subset, distinct from conventional bone-marrow-derived NK. CXCR6+ NK were strikingly enriched in healthy and diseased liver compared to blood (p < 0.0001). Human hepatic CXCR6+ NK had an immature(More)