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The purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection lacks specificity. We assessed 2 more specific M. tuberculosis antigens (ESAT-6 and CFP-10) by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) compared with PPD by ELISPOT and skin test in The Gambia. Of 735 household contacts of 130 sputum smear-positive tuberculosis cases,(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is estimated to infect 80 to 100 million people annually, the majority of whom do not develop clinical tuberculosis (TB) but instead maintain the infection in a latent state. These individuals generally become positive in response to a tuberculin skin test and may develop clinical TB at a later date, particularly if their immune(More)
BACKGROUND Vaccination with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara expressing antigen 85A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MVA85A, induces high levels of cellular immune responses in UK volunteers. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of this new vaccine in West African volunteers. METHODS AND FINDINGS We vaccinated 21 healthy adult male subjects (11(More)
Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 is increased in tuberculosis and thought to be detrimental. We show here that in healthy contacts there is increased expression of its naturally occurring antagonist, IL-4delta2 (IL-4delta2). We identified contacts by showing that their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) released interferon (IFN)-gamma in response to(More)
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been successful in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease but effectiveness has been challenged by replacement of vaccine serotypes with non-vaccine serotypes. Vaccines targeting common pneumococcal protein(s) found in most/all pneumococci may overcome this limitation. This phase II study assessed safety and(More)
New tuberculosis vaccines are urgently needed to curtail the current epidemic. MVA85A is a subunit vaccine that could enhance immunity from BCG vaccination. To determine MVA85A safety and immunogenicity as well as interactions with other routine vaccines administered in infancy, we randomized healthy 4-month-old infants who had received Bacille(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, reliable efficacy markers for assessment of new interventions against tuberculosis (TB) are limited to disease and death. More precise measurement of the human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may be important. A qualitative enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) result for early secretory antigenic target 6(More)
This study aimed to evaluate the durability of the immunogenicity of MVA85A beyond infancy. Participants in an immunogenicity study of MVA85A administered at age of 4 months had additional evaluation 14 months after initial vaccination for IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to Ag85A peptide and ESAT6/CFP-10 and tuberculin skin test (TST). 112 children participated in(More)
Tuberculosis remains a substantial global health problem despite effective drug treatments. The efficacy of BCG, the only available vaccine, is variable, especially in tuberculosis-endemic regions. Recent advances in the development of new vaccines against tuberculosis mean that the first of these are now entering into early clinical trials. A recombinant(More)
Commercial tests measuring IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are available for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Measures that minimize cost and complexity will facilitate their application in less-developed countries. We investigated whether overlapping peptides representing both ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are required to detect M.(More)