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Interleukin-12 (IL-12, p70) a heterodimeric cytokine of p40 and p35 subunits, important for Th1-type immune responses, has been attributed a prominent role in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, the related heterodimeric cytokine, IL-23, composed of the same p40 subunit as IL-12 and a(More)
PURPOSE Defensins are naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Recently the authors published evidence of defensin production by the human ocular surface. A study was undertaken to look for intraocular defensins that may account for unexplained antimicrobial activity of intraocular fluids. METHODS Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(More)
Surgeons and patients are often reluctant to support regional anesthesia (RA) for shoulder and other orthopedic surgeries. This is because of the sometimes true but usually incorrectly perceived "slowing down" of operating room turnover time and the perceived potential for added morbidity. Recently, severe devastating and permanent nerve injury(More)
PURPOSE To study the involvement of apoptosis using different apoptosis markers in PVR pathogenesis. METHODS The presence of mRNA coding for Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) was investigated in vitreous samples from 46 consecutive patients-25 with PVR, 11 with retinal detachment (RD) not complicated by PVR, and 10(More)
PURPOSE Amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation is an accepted procedure in ocular surgery. However, little is known of the interdonor and intradonor variability within the membrane. In addition, the effects of the methods of processing, storage, and preoperative preparation on the membrane are not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to use(More)
PURPOSE Antimicrobial peptides are the eukaryotic analogues of antibiotics. In addition to their antimicrobial activity, these peptides can signal to host cells and are therefore intermediaries between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Results in a prior study showed that beta-defensins-1 and -2 are made by ocular surface epithelial cells. In the(More)
BACKGROUND The Limbal epithelial crypt (LEC) is a solid cord of cells, approximately 120 microns long. It arises from the undersurface of interpalisade rete ridges of the limbal palisades of Vogt and extends deeper into the limbal stroma parallel or perpendicular to the palisade. There are up to 6 or 7 such LEC, variably distributed along the limbus in each(More)
BACKGROUND CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, natural killer T-like cells (NKT-like cells, CD56(+)CD3(+)) and natural killer cells (NK cells, CD56(+)CD3(-)) are the three main classes of human killer cells and they are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Activation of these cells can initiate immune responses by virtue of(More)
BACKGROUND It is recognised that modulations of the nuclear import of macromolecules have a role in changing cellular phenotypes and carcinogenesis. We and others have noticed that aberrant subcellular localisation of DNA damage response (DDR) proteins in breast cancer (BC) is associated with loss-of-function phenotype. This study aims to investigate the(More)