Patrick J. Prendergast

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In this study, a computer-based method called finite-element analysis is used to predict the forced-frequency response of the ear, with and without an ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP 0362, Xomed Surgical Products). The method allows visualisation of the dynamical behaviour of the tympanic membrane (TM) and of the ossicles. The finite-element model is(More)
The mechanism of hearing involves conduction of mechanical vibrations along the ossicular chain to the inner ear. An acoustic wave is collected and transformed as it passes down the ear canal and impacts on the tympanic membrane (ear drum). The drum is connected to the inner-ear by three ossicle bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) in a complex arrangement,(More)
Although it is known that mechanical forces are needed for normal bone development, the current understanding of how biophysical stimuli are interpreted by and integrated with genetic regulatory mechanisms is limited. Mechanical forces are thought to be mediated in cells by "mechanosensitive" genes, but it is a challenge to demonstrate that the genetic(More)
HYPOTHESIS It was hypothesized that the differences in the bioacoustic performance of ossicular replacement prosthesis designs, and insertion positions, could be quantified using finite element analysis. BACKGROUND Many designs of prosthesis are available for middle ear surgery. The materials used, and the shape of the implants, differ widely. Advances in(More)
Mechanical forces are essential for normal adult bone function and repair, but the impact of prenatal muscle contractions on bone development remains to be explored in depth in mammalian model systems. In this study, we analyze skeletogenesis in two 'muscleless' mouse mutant models in which the formation of skeletal muscle development is disrupted;(More)
Muscle contractions begin in early embryonic life, generating forces that regulate the correct formation of the skeleton. In this paper we test the hypothesis that the biophysical stimulation generated by muscle forces may be a causative factor for the changes in shape of the knee joint as it grows. We do this by predicting the spatial and temporal patterns(More)
Very little is known about the regulation of morphogenesis in synovial joints. Mechanical forces generated from muscle contractions are required for normal development of several aspects of normal skeletogenesis. Here we show that biophysical stimuli generated by muscle contractions impact multiple events during chick knee joint morphogenesis influencing(More)
The optimal mechanical properties of a scaffold to promote cartilage generation in osteochondral defects in vivo are not known. During normal daily activities cartilage is subjected to large cyclic loads that not only facilitate nutrient transport and waste removal through the dense tissue but also act as a stimulus to the chondrocytes. In contrast,(More)
Cartilage defects that penetrate the subchondral bone can undergo spontaneous repair through the formation of a fibrous or cartilaginous tissue mediated primarily by mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow. This tissue is biomechanically inferior to normal articular cartilage, and is often observed to degrade over time. The factors that control the type(More)
The knee joint has a highly complex 3-dimensional (3D) morphology that is sculpted at the interface of the forming long bones as they are generated in the embryo. Although it is clear that regulatory genes guide joint formation, the mechanisms that are responsible for morphogenesis of the knee are poorly understood. Certainly the process involves(More)