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This study characterized the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, autoantibodies specific for GM1 ganglioside (anti-GM1), IgG and IgM, and myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG), in the sera of infection-free, chronic (>12 months), traumatically injured(More)
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a potassium channel blocking agent with the ability to restore conduction in demyelinated internodes of axons of the spinal cord. The present investigation sought to obtain electrophysiologic evidence of the effect of 4-AP in ameliorating central conduction deficits in a group of patients (n = 6) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The(More)
A randomized double-blind dose-titration crossover trial of the safety and efficacy of oral fampridine-SR (sustained release 4-aminopyridine) was conducted on spinal cord injured (SCI) patients at two centers. Twenty-six patients (n = 26) with incomplete lesions completed the trial. These patients all had chronic (>2 years) and stable neurological deficits.(More)
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a K+ channel blocking agent that enhances nerve conduction through areas of demyelination by prolonging the duration of the action potential and increasing the safety factor for conduction. We have investigated the effects of 4-AP (24 mg total dose-intravenous) in 6 patients with spinal cord injury (3 complete, 3 incomplete) with(More)
The potassium (K+) channel-blocking agent 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is currently being investigated for its potential therapeutic value in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that 4-AP ameliorates central motor conduction deficits in individuals with SCI. Oral 4-AP (10 mg) was administered to 19 (n =(More)
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a potassium (K+) channel blocking agent that has been shown to reduce the latency and increase the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). These effects on MEPs are thought to reflect enhanced conduction in long tract axons(More)
Spinal cord injury has a profound impact on the storage and voiding functions of the urinary bladder. Loss of autonomic and somatic control mechanisms leads to hypo- or hyperactivity of the bladder wall and sphincters causing problems that range from incontinence to complete loss of the capacity to empty the bladder. This chapter outlines the types of(More)
We have investigated the effects of mild whole body hypothermia on the amplitude and latency of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in control subjects (n = 12) and patients (n = 15) with chronic compressive or contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). Mild hypothermia (-1 degree C) was induced by controlled circulation of propylene glycol through a(More)
Conditioning of lower limb H-reflexes by transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex was used to detect preserved innervation in patients with long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI). Cortical stimulation was delivered at intensities suprathreshold or subthreshold for evoking motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The conditioning (C) cortical stimulation(More)
The effects of simulated unilateral and bilateral knee-flexion contractures on standing balance were studied by testing 15 normal subjects on a Kistler force platform. Postural sway (mediolateral and anteroposterior travel) and the mean position of the center of pressure (as a percentage of the distance between the midlines of the feet and from heels to(More)