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Storing memories of ongoing, everyday experiences requires a high degree of plasticity, but retaining these memories demands protection against changes induced by further activity and experience. Models in which memories are stored through switch-like transitions in synaptic efficacy are good at storing but bad at retaining memories if these transitions are(More)
Neural activity in the brain is followed by localized changes in blood flow and volume. We address the relative change in volume for arteriole vs. venous blood within primary vibrissa cortex of awake, head-fixed mice. Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy was used to measure spontaneous and sensory evoked changes in flow and volume at the level of single(More)
It is well known that the density of neurons varies within the adult brain. In neocortex, this includes variations in neuronal density between different lamina as well as between different regions. Yet the concomitant variation of the microvessels is largely uncharted. Here, we present automated histological, imaging, and analysis tools to simultaneously(More)
We present a method to form an optical window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without causing brain inflammation. This enabled us to repeatedly image blood flow in cortical capillaries of awake mice and determine long-range correlations in speed. We also repeatedly imaged dendritic spines, microglia and angioarchitecture,(More)
Rats discriminate surface textures using their whiskers (vibrissae), but how whiskers extract texture information, and how this information is encoded by the brain, are not known. In the resonance model, whisker motion across different textures excites mechanical resonance in distinct subsets of whiskers, due to variation across whiskers in resonance(More)
The cerebral vascular system services the constant demand for energy during neuronal activity in the brain. Attempts to delineate the logic of neurovascular coupling have been greatly aided by the advent of two-photon laser scanning microscopy to image both blood flow and the activity of individual cells below the surface of the brain. Here we provide a(More)
Many biological systems exhibit complex temporal behavior that cannot be adequately characterized by a single time constant. This dynamics, observed from single channels up to the level of human psychophysics, is often better described by power-law rather than exponential dependences on time. We develop and study the properties of neural models with(More)
Activity-dependent modification of synaptic strengths due to spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is sensitive to correlations between pre- and postsynaptic firing over timescales of tens of milliseconds. Temporal associations typically encountered in behavioral tasks involve times on the order of seconds. To relate the learning of such temporal(More)
Pial arterioles actively change diameter to regulate blood flow to the cortex. However, it is unclear whether arteriole reactivity and its homeostatic role of conserving red blood cell (RBC) flux remains intact after a transient period of ischemia. To examine this issue, we measured vasodynamics in pial arteriole networks that overlie the stroke penumbra(More)
In songbirds, nucleus HVc plays a key role in the generation of the syllable sequences that make up a song. Auditory responses of neurons in HVc are selective for single syllables and for combinations of syllables occurring in temporal sequences corresponding to those in the bird's own song. We present a model of HVc that produces syllable- and(More)