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Laser-scanning methods are a means to observe streaming particles, such as the flow of red blood cells in a blood vessel. Typically, particle velocity is extracted from images formed from cyclically repeated line-scan data that is obtained along the center-line of the vessel; motion leads to streaks whose angle is a function of the velocity. Past methods(More)
The cross-sectional area of a blood vessel determines its resistance, and thus is a regulator of local blood flow. However, the cross-sections of penetrating vessels in the cortex can be non-circular, and dilation and constriction can change the shape of the vessels. We show that observed vessel shape changes can introduce large errors in flux calculations(More)
Voluntary locomotion is accompanied by large increases in cortical activity and localized increases in cerebral blood volume (CBV). We sought to quantitatively determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of voluntary locomotion-evoked cerebral hemodynamic changes. We measured single vessel dilations using two-photon microscopy and cortex-wide changes in(More)
Some neurons in the nucleus HVc of the songbird respond vigorously to sequences of syllables as they appear in the bird's own song (such as AB), but they respond weakly or not at all when the same syllables are played individually (A or B) or in a diierent order (BA). We have constructed a network model that replicates this temporal sequence selectivity.(More)
Understanding the spatial dynamics of dilation in the cerebral vasculature is essential for deciphering the vascular basis of hemodynamic signals in the brain. We used two-photon microscopy to image neural activity and vascular dynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake behaving mice during voluntary locomotion. Arterial dilations within the(More)
Understanding how changes in the cardiovascular system contribute to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) increases is critical for interpreting hemodynamic signals. Here we investigated how systemic cardiovascular changes affect the cortical hemodynamic response during voluntary locomotion. In the mouse, voluntary locomotion drives an increase in(More)
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