Patrick J. Bakkes

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A subset of essential cellular proteins requires the assistance of chaperonins (in Escherichia coli, GroEL and GroES), double-ring complexes in which the two rings act alternately to bind, encapsulate and fold a wide range of nascent or stress-denatured proteins. This process starts by the trapping of a substrate protein on hydrophobic surfaces in the(More)
Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1 M NaCl. Here, we describe an optimized purification protocol using a five-step NaCl(More)
Several Lactococcus lactis strains produce the lantibiotic nisin. The dedicated enzymes NisB and NisC and the transporter NisT modify and secrete the ribosomally synthesized nisin precursor peptide. NisB can function in the absence of the cyclase NisC, yielding the dehydrated prenisin that lacks the thioether rings. A kinetic analysis of nisin production by(More)
Nisin is a posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptide containing the cyclic thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Although much is known about its antimicrobial activity and mode of action, knowledge about the nisin modification process is still rather limited. The dehydratase NisB is believed to be the initial interaction partner(More)
Secretion of the Escherichia coli toxin hemolysin A (HlyA) is catalyzed by the membrane protein complex HlyB-HlyD-TolC and requires a secretion sequence located within the last 60 amino acids of HlyA. The Hly translocator complex exports a variety of passenger proteins when fused N-terminal to this secretion sequence. However, not all fusions are secreted(More)
Upon prolonged exposure to cholate and other toxic compounds, Lactococcus lactis develops a multidrug resistance phenotype that has been attributed to an elevated expression of the heterodimeric ABC-type multidrug transporter LmrCD. To investigate the molecular basis of bile acid resistance in L. lactis and to evaluate the contribution of efflux-based(More)
We have used native mass spectrometry to analyze macromolecular complexes involved in the chaperonin-assisted refolding of gp23, the major capsid protein of bacteriophage T4. Adapting the instrumental methods allowed us to monitor all intermediate complexes involved in the chaperonin folding cycle. We found that GroEL can bind up to two unfolded gp23(More)
Methanethiol (MT) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) have been shown to be the dominant volatile organic sulfur compounds in freshwater sediments. Previous research demonstrated that in these habitats MT and DMS are derived mainly from the methylation of sulfide. In order to identify the microorganisms that are responsible for this type of MT and DMS formation,(More)
A variety of fusion proteins between the versatile redox partners flavodoxin (FldA) and flavodoxin reductase (Fpr) from Escherichia coli was constructed with the aim to improve the electron transfer properties. The order in which FldA and Fpr were fused and the linker region between them was varied in a systematic manner. A simple molecular tool, designated(More)
It has been suggested that the bacterial GroEL chaperonin accommodates only one substrate at any given time, due to conformational changes to both the cis and trans ring that are induced upon substrate binding. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we show that indeed GroEL binds only one molecule of the model substrate Rubisco. In contrast, the(More)