Patrick J Bakkes

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A subset of essential cellular proteins requires the assistance of chaperonins (in Escherichia coli, GroEL and GroES), double-ring complexes in which the two rings act alternately to bind, encapsulate and fold a wide range of nascent or stress-denatured proteins. This process starts by the trapping of a substrate protein on hydrophobic surfaces in the(More)
We have used native mass spectrometry to analyze macromolecular complexes involved in the chaperonin-assisted refolding of gp23, the major capsid protein of bacteriophage T4. Adapting the instrumental methods allowed us to monitor all intermediate complexes involved in the chaperonin folding cycle. We found that GroEL can bind up to two unfolded gp23(More)
The morphogenesis of bacteriophage T4 requires a specialized bacteriophage-encoded molecular chaperone (gp31) that is essential for the folding of the T4 major capsid protein (gp23). gp31 is related to GroES, the chaperonin of the Escherichia coli host because it displays a similar overall structure and properties. Why GroES is unable to fold the T4 capsid(More)
It has been suggested that the bacterial GroEL chaperonin accommodates only one substrate at any given time, due to conformational changes to both the cis and trans ring that are induced upon substrate binding. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we show that indeed GroEL binds only one molecule of the model substrate Rubisco. In contrast, the(More)
Bacteriophage T4 produces a GroES analogue, gp31, which cooperates with the Escherichia coli GroEL to fold its major coat protein gp23. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and image processing to obtain three-dimensional structures of the E.coli chaperonin GroEL complexed with gp31, in the presence of both ATP and ADP. The GroEL-gp31-ADP map has a(More)
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