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CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed during activation as soluble CD163 (sCD163). We have previously demonstrated that monocyte expansion from bone marrow with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection correlated with plasma sCD163, the rate of AIDS progression, and the severity of macrophage-mediated pathogenesis.(More)
Infection by HIV is associated with the expansion of monocytes expressing CD16 antigens, but the significance of this in HIV pathogenesis is largely unknown. In rhesus macaques, at least three subpopulations of blood monocytes were identified based on their expression of CD14 and CD16: CD14(high)CD16(-), CD14(high)CD16(low), and CD14(low)CD16(high). The(More)
Difficulties in understanding the mechanisms of HIV neuropathogenesis include the inability to study dynamic processes of infection, cumulative effects of the virus, and contributing host immune responses. We used H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and studied monocyte activation and progression of CNS neuronal injury in a CD8 lymphocyte depletion model of(More)
BACKGROUND Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been proposed as a potential conjunctive therapy for HIV-1 associated cognitive disorders. Precise mechanism(s) of minocycline's functions are not well defined. METHODS Fourteen rhesus macaques were SIV infected and neuronal metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a significant problem. In efforts to understand and alleviate neurocognitive deficits associated with HIV, we used an accelerated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of NeuroAIDS to test whether minocycline is(More)
Monitoring changes in rhesus macaque immune cell populations during infectious disease is crucial. The aim of this work was to simultaneously analyze the phenotype of rhesus macaque lymphocyte, monocyte and dendritic cell (DC) subsets using a single 12-color flow cytometry panel. Blood from healthy non-infected rhesus macaques was labeled with a cocktail of(More)
Monitoring changes in human immune cell populations such as lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs) during infectious diseases like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial. However, difficulties to identify rare or heterogeneous cell populations can be limiting. For example, to accurately measure DC subsets, eight flow cytometry parameters(More)
Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy in controlling viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, commonly referred to as neuroAIDS, remain a frequent and poorly understood complication. Infection of CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with the SIVmac251 viral(More)
Four SIV-infected monkeys with high plasma virus and CNS injury were treated with an anti-α4 blocking antibody (natalizumab) once a week for three weeks beginning on 28 days post-infection (late). Infection in the brain and gut were quantified, and neuronal injury in the CNS was assessed by MR spectroscopy, and compared to controls with AIDS and SIV(More)
Loss of circulating CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during HIV infection is well established. However, changes of myeloid DCs (mDCs) are ambiguous since they are studied as a homogeneous CD11c+ population despite phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Heterogeneity of CD11c+ mDCs in primates is poorly described in HIV and SIV infection. Using(More)