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Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an important protein involved in lipoprotein clearance and cholesterol redistribution. ApoE is abundantly expressed in astrocytes in the brain and is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report here that small molecule ligands that activate either liver X receptors (LXR) or retinoid X receptor (RXR)(More)
The oxysterol receptors LXR (liver X receptor)-alpha and LXRbeta are nuclear receptors that play a key role in regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. We found that LXRs also play a significant role in glucose metabolism. Treatment of diabetic rodents with the LXR agonist, T0901317, resulted in dramatic reduction of plasma glucose. In(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protease that regulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. The mechanisms of this action, however, remain to be defined. We show here that recombinant human PCSK9 expressed in HEK293 cells was readily secreted into the medium, with the prosegment associated with the C-terminal(More)
Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily that can regulate important lipid metabolic pathways. The plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is known to mediate transfer of phospholipids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to high density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays a critical role in HDL metabolism. We report here that a(More)
Our studies were conducted to explore the role of hepatic fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in fatty acid transport to the nucleus. Purified rat L-FABP facilitated the specific interaction of [(3)H]oleic acid with the nuclei. L-FABP complexed with unlabeled oleic acid decreased the nuclear association of [(3)H]oleic acid:L-FABP; however, oleic(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key regulator of triglyceride clearance. Its coordinated regulation during feeding and fasting is critical for maintaining lipid homeostasis and energy supply. Angiopoietin-like (Angptl)3 and Angptl4 are secreted proteins that have been demonstrated to regulate triglyceride metabolism by inhibiting LPL. We have taken a targeted(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a secreted protein which regulates serum LDL cholesterol. It circulates in human and rodent serum in an intact form and a major truncated form. Previous in vitro studies involving the expression of human PCSK9 genetic variants and in vivo studies of furin knockout mice suggest that the truncated form(More)
Estrogen replacement therapy in women decreases hepatic lipase (HL) activity, which may account for the associated increase in HDL cholesterol. To investigate whether estrogen decreases HL transcription, transient cotransfection assays with HL promoter and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) expression constructs were performed in HepG2 cells.(More)
Peroxisomes are the exclusive site for the beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids of more than 20 carbons in length (VLCFAs). Although the bulk of dietary long-chain fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochondria, VLCFAs cannot be catabolized in mitochondria and must be shortened first by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. The regulation of peroxisomal,(More)
Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid beta-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X(More)