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Femoral neck axis length, neck width, and neck-shaft angle were measured on radiographs of right proximal femora from 64 cadavers (28 female, 36 male). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for various regions of interest, and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to determine BMD and bone areas for(More)
Previously it has been demonstrated that cortical bone thickness can be estimated from ultrasonic guided-wave measurements, in an axial transmission configuration, together with an appropriate analytical model. This study considers the impact of bone thickness variation within the measurement region on the ultrasonically determined thickness (UTh). To this(More)
Determination of cortical bone thickness is warranted, e.g., for assessing the level of endosteal resorption in osteoporosis or other bone pathologies. We have shown previously that the velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric (or flexural) guided wave, measured for bone phantoms and bones in vitro, correlates with the cortical thickness significantly(More)
Guided waves, consistent with the A0 Lamb mode, have previously been observed in bone phantoms and human long bones. Reported velocity measurements relied on line fitting of the observed wave fronts. Such an approach has limited ability to assess dispersion and is affected by interference by other wave modes. For a more robust identification of modes and(More)
Existing ultrasound devices for assessing the human tibia are based on detecting the first arriving signal, corresponding to a wave propagating at, or close to, the bulk longitudinal velocity in bone. However, human long bones are effectively irregular hollow tubes and should theoretically support the propagation of more complex guided modes similar to Lamb(More)
Body weight and lean mass correlate with bone mass, but the relationship between fat mass and bone remains elusive. The study population consisted of 396 girls and 138 premenopausal mothers and 114 postmenopausal grandmothers of these girls. Body composition and tibial length were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone traits were(More)
This paper describes preliminary observations of ultrasonic wave propagation in air-saturated defatted cancellous bone from the human vertebra. Using a broadband pulse transmission system, attenuation and phase velocity were measured over a wide frequency range (100 kHz-1 MHz). The observed behaviour was consistent with that expected for the decoupled slow(More)
Vertebral dimensions and vertebral shape indices (VSI) were investigated in T4-L4 in 926 females aged 50-81 years. The most consistent finding was the increase of inferior antero-posterior dimension with age. Wedging and concavity also increased with age but the changes were not significant at all vertebral levels. The value of VSIs also varied with level.(More)
BACKGROUND Quantitative ultrasound is in widespread clinical use for assessment of bone quality at peripheral skeletal sites, but has not yet been applied to those sites in the axial skeleton, such as the spine and hip, where osteoporotic fractures are common. METHODS Ultrasound measurements were made in 11 cadaveric vertebrae and relationships with bone(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the relative effectiveness of calcium supplementation from food or pills with or without vitamin D supplementation for bone mass accrual during the rapid growth period. OBJECTIVE The purpose was to examine the effects of both food-based and pill supplements of calcium and vitamin D on bone mass and body composition in(More)