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Antigen stimulation of immune cells triggers Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels, promoting the immune response to pathogens by activating the transcription factor NFAT. We have previously shown that cells from patients with one form of hereditary severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) syndrome are defective in store-operated(More)
Stimulation of immune cells causes depletion of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, thereby triggering sustained Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels, an essential signal for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Recent evidence indicates that activation of CRAC current is initiated by STIM proteins,(More)
The flow of information from calcium-mobilizing receptors to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent genes is critically dependent on interaction between the phosphatase calcineurin and the transcription factor NFAT. A high-affinity calcineurin-binding peptide was selected from combinatorial peptide libraries based on the calcineurin docking(More)
The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and the AP-1 heterodimer, Fos-Jun, cooperatively bind a composite DNA site and synergistically activate the expression of many immune-response genes. A 2.7-A-resolution crystal structure of the DNA-binding domains of NFAT, Fos and Jun, in a quaternary complex with a DNA fragment containing the distal(More)
Ca(2+) entry into cells of the peripheral immune system occurs through highly Ca(2+)-selective channels known as CRAC (calcium release-activated calcium) channels. CRAC channels are a very well-characterized example of store-operated Ca(2+) channels, so designated because they open when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store becomes depleted.(More)
In hippocampal neurons, the scaffold protein AKAP79 recruits the phosphatase calcineurin to L-type Ca(2+) channels and couples Ca(2+) influx to activation of calcineurin and of its substrate, the transcription factor NFAT. Here we show that an IAIIIT anchoring site in human AKAP79 binds the same surface of calcineurin as the PxIxIT recognition peptide of(More)
Precise regulation of the NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of transcription factors (NFAT1-4) is essential for vertebrate development and function. In resting cells, NFAT proteins are heavily phosphorylated and reside in the cytoplasm; in cells exposed to stimuli that raise intracellular free Ca2+ levels, they are dephosphorylated by the(More)
TET (ten-eleven-translocation) proteins are Fe(ii)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that modify the methylation status of DNA by successively oxidizing 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine, potential intermediates in the active erasure of DNA-methylation marks. Here we show that IDAX (also known as(More)
The STIM1-ORAI1 pathway of store-operated Ca(2+) entry is an essential component of cellular Ca(2+) signalling. STIM1 senses depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores in response to physiological stimuli, and relocalizes within the endoplasmic reticulum to plasma-membrane-apposed junctions, where it recruits and gates open plasma membrane ORAI1 Ca(2+)(More)
Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized(More)