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Weather-related health effects have attracted renewed interest because of the observed and predicted climate change. The authors studied the short-term effects of cold weather on mortality in 15 European cities. The effects of minimum apparent temperature on cause- and age-specific daily mortality were assessed for the cold season (October-March) by using(More)
Air pollution exposure studies in the past decade have focused on acute (days) or long-term (years) effects. We present an analysis of medium-term (weeks to months) exposure effects of particulate pollution and temperature. We assessed the associations of particulate pollution (black smoke) and temperature with age-standardized daily mortality rates over 17(More)
RATIONALE Episode analyses of heat waves have documented a comparatively higher impact on mortality than on morbidity (hospital admissions) in European cities. The evidence from daily time series studies is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the impact of high environmental temperatures on hospital admissions during April to September in 12(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) causes disease in nonsmokers. Workplace bans on smoking are interventions to reduce exposure to ETS to try to prevent harmful health effects. On March 29, 2004, the Irish government introduced the first national comprehensive legislation banning smoking in all workplaces, including bars and restaurants. This(More)
INTRODUCTION In the past few years, comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all workplaces have been introduced in many jurisdictions in the US, Canada, and Europe. In this paper, we review published studies to ascertain if there is any evidence of health benefits resulting from the implementation of these laws. METHODS All papers relating(More)
Within the framework of the APHEA2 (Air Pollution on Health: a European Approach) project, the effects of ambient particles on mortality among persons > or = 65 yrs were investigated. Daily measurements for particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM10) and black smoke (BS), as well as the daily number of deaths among persons > or =(More)
INTRODUCTION Numerous epidemiological studies have found a link between air pollution and health. We are reviewing a collection of published intervention studies with particular focus on studies assessing both improvements in air quality and associated health effects. METHODS Interventions, defined as events aimed at reducing air pollution or where(More)
We examined potential associations of ever asthma, and symptoms of wheeze (past 12 months), hay fever, eczema and bronchitis (cough with phlegm) among school children exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in cars, using a modified Irish International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol. 2,809 children of 13-14 yrs old and who selected(More)
During the 1980s the Republic of Ireland experienced repeated severe pollution episodes. Domestic coal burning was a major source of this pollution. In 1990 the Irish government introduced a ban on the marketing, sale, and distribution of coal in Dublin. The ban was extended to Cork in 1995 and to 10 other communities in 1998 and 2000. We previously(More)
BACKGROUND On the 29th March 2004 the Irish government introduced a comprehensive workplace smoking ban to protect the health of workers. This study evaluates the impact the ban had on staffing levels, customer numbers and smoking rates in a sample of 38 public houses in Dublin. METHODS A total of 38 public houses were visited prior to the introduction of(More)