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Growth in vitro of malignant lymphoid cells has been previously reported, but those studies involved direct establishment of cell lines from the patients' cells. In the present study, an in vitro system for both primary growth and passage of malignant lymphoblastic colony-forming cells (ML-CFC) was established, and for the first time, colony-forming cells(More)
Graphical Abstract Highlights d A gradient of BMP signaling maintains the directive axis in Nematostella d BMP signaling regulates Nematostella Hox genes and patterns the endoderm d BMP network topology is similar in Nematostella and Xenopus d Constraint analysis reveals the evolvability of BMP network components In Brief Similar to Bilateria, anthozoans(More)
Developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, yet act in embryos of very different sizes. How scaling is achieved has remained elusive. Here we identify a generally applicable mechanism for dynamic scaling on growing domains and show that it quantitatively agrees with data from the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. We show that for the measured parameter(More)
Cancer drivers are genomic alterations that provide cells containing them with a selective advantage over their local competitors, whereas neutral passengers do not change the somatic fitness of cells. Cancer-driving mutations are usually discriminated from passenger mutations by their higher degree of recurrence in tumor samples. However, there is(More)
During embryonic development tissue morphogenesis and signaling are tightly coupled. It is therefore important to simulate both tissue morphogenesis and signaling simultaneously in in silico models of developmental processes. The resolution of the processes depends on the questions of interest. As part of this chapter we introduce different descriptions of(More)
The size and shape of organs is species specific, and even in species in which organ size is strongly influenced by environmental cues, such as nutrition or temperature, it follows defined rules. Therefore, mechanisms must exist to ensure a tight control of organ size within a given species, while being flexible enough to allow for the evolution of(More)
We investigated whether the respiratory defect in the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome might respond to dietary manipulation. The effects of hypocaloric ketogenic regimens on the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide were studied in a manner excluding changes in weight or thoracic mechanics as factors. Six obese subjects with hyporesponse (less than 1.1(More)
Patterning and growth are linked during early development and have to be tightly controlled to result in a functional tissue or organ. During the development of the Drosophila eye, this linkage is particularly clear: the growth of the eye primordium mainly results from proliferating cells ahead of the morphogenetic furrow (MF), a moving signaling wave that(More)