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Women are particularly susceptible to malaria during first and second pregnancies, even though they may have developed immunity over years of residence in endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) were obtained from human placentas. These IRBCs bound to purified chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) but not to other extracellular matrix(More)
There are still approximately 500 million cases of malaria and 1 million deaths from malaria each year. Yet recently, malaria incidence has been dramatically reduced in some parts of Africa by increasing deployment of anti-mosquito measures and new artemisinin-containing treatments, prompting renewed calls for global eradication. However, treatment and(More)
Understanding of the biological basis for susceptibility to malaria in pregnancy was recently advanced by the discovery that erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum accumulate in the placenta through adhesion to molecules such as chondroitin sulphate A. Antibody recognition of placental infected erythrocytes is dependent on sex and gravidity, and(More)
Pregnant women, especially primigravidas, are highly susceptible to malaria infection, resulting in maternal anemia and low birth weight infants. Because circulating parasitemia is rare in the newborn, the cause of poor fetal outcomes has been unclear. We measured cytokine concentrations in placentas collected from women delivering in urban hospitals in(More)
BACKGROUND Iron supplementation may increase malaria morbidity and mortality, but the effect of naturally occurring variation in iron status on malaria risk is not well studied. METHODS A total of 785 Tanzanian children living in an area of intense malaria transmission were enrolled at birth, and intensively monitored for parasitemia and illness including(More)
Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is used to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, parasites resistant to the IPTp drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) have emerged worldwide, and infections with mixed resistant and susceptible parasites are exacerbated by pyrimethamine in mice. In a prospective delivery cohort in Muheza,(More)
Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines target Plasmodium during its sporozoite and liver stages, and can prevent progression to blood-stage disease, which causes a million deaths each year. Whole organism sporozoite vaccines induce sterile immunity in animals and humans and guide subunit vaccine development. A recombinant protein-in-adjuvant pre-erythrocytic(More)
Novel vaccines are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe malaria. Using a differential whole-proteome screening method, we identified Plasmodium falciparum schizont egress antigen-1 (PfSEA-1), a 244-kilodalton parasite antigen expressed in schizont-infected red blood cells (RBCs). Antibodies to PfSEA-1 decreased parasite replication by arresting(More)