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OBJECTIVE Because of the irreversibility of lesioning procedures and their possible side effects, we studied the efficacy of replacing bilateral anterior capsulotomy with chronic electrical capsular stimulation in patients with severe, long-standing, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHODS We stereotactically implanted quadripolar(More)
The close behavioral parallels between the processing of quantitative information conveyed by symbolic and nonsymbolic stimuli led to the hypothesis that there exists a common cerebral representation of quantity (Dehaene, Dehaene-Lambertz, & Cohen, 1998). The neural basis underlying the encoding of number magnitude has been localized to regions in and(More)
[(18)F]MK-9470 is a selective, high-affinity, inverse agonist (human IC(50), 0.7 nM) for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) that has been developed for use in human brain imaging. Autoradiographic studies in rhesus monkey brain showed that [(18)F]MK-9470 binding is aligned with the reported distribution of CB1 receptors with high specific binding in the(More)
UNLABELLED High-frequency anterior capsular stimulation is a new, promising, and reversible neuromodulatory treatment in the research stage for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The mechanism of action is unknown but hypothesized to be secondary to interruption of the corticothalamostriatocortical circuit. METHODS (18)F-FDG PET(More)
Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly dispersed(More)
In order to perform attenuation correction in emission tomography an attenuation map is required. We propose a new method to compute this map directly from the emission sinogram, eliminating the transmission scan from the acquisition protocol. The problem is formulated as an optimization task where the objective function is a combination of the likelihood(More)
Paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia (PED) can occur in isolation or in association with epilepsy, but the genetic causes and pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. We performed a clinical evaluation and genetic analysis in a five-generation family with co-occurrence of PED and epilepsy (n = 39), suggesting that this combination(More)
UNLABELLED FDG-PET contributes to the diagnosis and management of neurological diseases. In some of these diseases, pathological gray matter (GM) areas may have a reduced FDG uptake. Detection of these regions can be difficult and some remain undiscovered using visual assessment. The main reason for this detection problem is the relatively small thickness(More)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is implicated as a regulator of homeostasis of several cerebral functions and is a novel target for drug treatment of neuropyschiatric disorders. So far, the cerebral cannabinoid-type 1 receptor (CB1R) has only been studied using in vitro, animal model, electrophysiological and post-mortem data. We have used positron(More)
A new iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm for X-ray computed tomography is presented. The algorithm prevents beam hardening artifacts by incorporating a polychromatic acquisition model. The continuous spectrum of the X-ray tube is modeled as a number of discrete energies. The energy dependence of the attenuation is taken into account by(More)